Fig. 69 Pencil points, (a) for linework (b) for figures and letters (c) for compasses.
You can obtain these in the classic wooden form, or as refillable holders. Again tastes differ -1 find the collet-type holders a bit of a nuisance as if you have several grades it is difficult to tell which is which, whereas the wooden ones are clearly marked at the end. Make your choice
The critical matter is the sharpening. For all linework the 'point' should not be pointed, but more a chisel shape, Fig. 69(a). This enables thin lines to be drawn with ease; in my younger days I could draw about 100 lines to the inch with a 6H pencil. The difference between thin and thick lines is obtained by changing the grade of the lead, not by using a blunter point. In passing, some drawing pencils are offered with flat leads, presumably to ease the making of the point. I have never found these to be any advantage. Best sharpening results can be obtained from a worn flat file, about 4 to 6 inch fine cut. The leads for compasses are sharpened in the same way, as shown in Fig. 69 at (c). Pencils for lettering are, of course, filed to a conical point, Fig, 69(b). (The wooden part is, of course, cut with a sharp penknife.)
Paper can be a problem if you don't do much drawing. Almost any sort will do for sketching. If you are not going to need prints
(copies can be made from pencil on a photocopier) then good quality typing paper - around 100 gm/sq.metre (gsm) - will serve quite well and this can be bought up to A3 size in most shops. Artists' supply shops can offer even larger sizes, but you should tell them what you want it for. A surface good for taking charcoal or watercolour, or even airbrush, is not suitable for hard pencil work. If you expect to do a lot of drawing, then a roll of detail paper or detail tracing paper is worthwhile - you can get prints made from the latter. It comes in 25 metre rolls, widths from 30 inches to 48 inches. I use this tracing paper, 90gsm in weight, natural tint and smooth finish, for most of my work. For serious design work, though, you need something more robust, and the hard, draughtsman's hot pressed cartridge-type paper is the ideal. It is by no means cheap, but the drawing will last for 100 years or more.
I have not referred to drawing in ink, or tracing on linen or film, and don't intend to. This is a job for the specialist - it takes longer to make a good tracer than it does to make a good draughtsman, I think. By all means try if you wish, but as you can get perfectly reasonable prints from pencil on tracing paper the only real need for inkwork is on tracings used either in large engineering works or for reproduction in a magazine. If you do need a tracing there are jobbing tracers to be found in the Yellow Pages who will do the work for you. Incidentally, the tracing paper I have mentioned above will serve for inkwork, but is less permanent than tracing cloth or film. (Note that it is not the flimsy stuff used by dressmakers and children for tracing patterns) You will need a drawing-board, and you can pay anything from a 'fiver' to well over £1000. Although I do have a simple draughting machine I also use a small plain drawing-board and tee-square for a great deal of work. This is 16 x 23 inches, half imperial or A2 in metric measure, and quite large enough for all but major design work. The next size down, A3 or 12 x 16 inches, is rather too small. The paper size is fair enough, but there is not enough elbow room on the board. Plain drawing-boards are either clamped or battened, Fig. 70. The former are quite
adequate for casual work, but it is worth getting one with a hard insert at the end. (You can, of course, make one for yourself with little trouble. They are made of yellow pine, which is very stable and will not warp.) With the board you will need a tee-square, also shown in Fig. 70. There is no need for the tapered type on such a small board, but again it is worth having a hard edge. Modern ones usually have a transparent plastic edge and this is an advantage; you can see what you have done just below the edge.
There are, of course, miniature drawing centres available, with parallel motion linkwork controlling the draughting head carrying straight-edges in place of a tee-square. However in the small sizes they are not quite as convenient on the kitchen table as they look It is not a bad rule to start with the simplest equipment and work up.
There is a school of thought that favours using a hard plastic surface rather
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