In old age the flexor muscles tend to shorten. This causes the body, when it is in a normal standing posture, to have a general bowed' shape, with rounding of the shoulders as the upper back (the dorsal spine) increases its natural curvature and the neck thrusts the face forward. Even when the body is relaxed, the arms and legs remain slightly flexed.
The skin and the subcutaneous fat layers become thinner, and the muscles shrink. The elbow and wrist joints and the knuckles seem larger, and the veins may become visible as ridges just under the skin. All the fat deposits on the body and face become softer and tend to sag, as does the skin at the elbows and under the chin.
A development of the useful exercise suggested on page 59.
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