5/ the windows in this instance have lots of dots that give the impression of a curtain behind the glass. When you are happy that this is correct, you can then start to work with the ink and pen.
6/ in this illustration there is the trunk of a tree and the branches - a series of downward marks gives us the idea as to what type of tree it is.
7/ the variety of lines tell us about this flower. At the base of the flower, a free flowing line indicates the type of leaf. The stem is a straight line that implies the direction of the growth of the plant. Whilst the circle with the spikes protruding from it tells about how the plant looks when it is about to seed. The other arced marks within the circular centre indicate how it flowers.
8/ here are a series of marks that inform us of the structure of the chimney pot.
9/ a row of oblongs with diagonal marks of varying density give the impression of reflections in glass windows.
10/ a rounded W mark which is put down at random appears like a type of leaf.
12/ a series of quickly made directional lines with a small flicked mark at the top give us the visual understanding of a type of grass.
Your aim now with the pen is to load it with ink. Dip it into the ink, and in the first instance make some practice marks on another piece of paper until you achieve the right flow of ink from the pen to create a steady, even flowing line. Now you can begin to draw the line over the top of your pencil drawing, replicating the marks you have made with the pencil. Over the top of
this, you now need to lay down the washes using a flat head brush. The washes will give you the tonal contrast in the drawing. I suggest that you start with the lightest tone first because if you do not make the tone dark enough at the first attempt you can always add to it to make it darker. If you work the other way round it is more difficult to correct, and you will have to use correction fluid to cover up your mistakes. I have chosen a landscape for my example as I think landscape is very suited to this way of working with washes and pen and ink.
The washes for the picture should be mixed with water in a dish. The more water that is added to the ink the thinner the wash will be, and therefore the lighter the tone. So when you have mixed your first wash try it out first on a piece of paper, to see if you have the appropriate tone for that section of the drawing that you are going to put the tone too. In the first example, you can see that there are six tonal washes that range from a very light transparent tone, gradually getting darker until in the last tone we have a black opaque tone. In the next example,
there is a similar tonal transition but instead of these tones being separate there is a gradual continuous transition. Remember that this drawing is based on the observation of the landscape and that the light in the landscape can rapidly change so be prepared for the changing light. When you have made a commitment to an area in the drawing remain with it or you will be forever changing it. A good suggestion is to limit the amount of tones that you are going to work with in the drawing. Say a range of five tones ranging from black to the white of the paper, leaving you with three tones in the middle of varying greys from light to dark. One can pre-mix these tones to work quickly capturing the changing nature of the light. Once you are ready to start all you have to do is to put down the tones on top of your pen and ink drawing in the appropriate area. When I go out landscape working, I tend to take a number pre-stretched papers to work on to get the most out of the day's excursion.
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