1/ Correction fluid comes in a small plastic bottle and the applicator which is like a small brush is attached to the top of the bottle. To use the fluid dip the brush into the bottle and then apply to the appropriate area. One usually uses this type of application to cover larger areas.
2/ Correction pens are made of the same fluid but the applicator is in the fashion of a ballpoint pen. Therefore it is more suitable for correcting fine work, and can also be used to draw with, making a white line on a dark background.
3/ Chinese white is the traditional form of correction fluid. Chinese white is a white water-based paint that one applies over the offending area using a brush. It is not as good at covering the mistake as correction fluid.
Following are two drawings done after Picasso using correction fluid and correction pen - not as a correction fluid but as a drawing tool. As mentioned before in previous chapters, correction materials can be used as a positive part of the application. I have copied two drawings by Picasso. It's standard practice for beginners to copy the great masters and these drawings very much lend themselves to the use of correction fluids. Start by choosing an appropriate drawing for this project. The drawing should contain light and dark contrasts plus the use of white lines over the dark areas. Set yourself up with the materials. This should consist of a piece of paper that has been stretched, because we are going to put down some washes. You also need a flat headed brush to put the washes down, a pencil to lightly draw the composition, a dip pen, Indian ink, and some water to dilute the ink to make some thinner washes.
Start by taking the pencil and lightly sketch in a copy of your chosen artist's work. When you have finished this and you are happy with the composition you can draw over this with the dip pen and ink. After this
start to put in the tonal areas. Lay the darkest tones down first, followed by the thinner lighter tones. To make the lighter tones, put a little water in a dish and add some ink to it, then test the strength of the tone you have made by brushing this fluid on a practice piece of paper. If you need it to be darker then add some more ink. If you want it to be lighter then add some more water. Keep testing the strength of your tones before you apply them to your drawing. When you are applying them to you work your aim is to copy where the tones are on the original drawing. If you make some tonal areas too dark your can lighten them by putting down a layer of correction fluid over it. You can cover the area very opaquely and then lay another wash over the top again to get it right. Alternatively, one can try to brush the fluid onto the area in a less opaque manner so the tone underneath still shows through and you have achieved the right level of tone. If the tone you have put down is not dark enough then you can wait for it to dry and then put a darker tone over it. You should now have a tonal drawing that has little or no evidence of line as it will have been obliterated by the tonal overdrawing. You are now in the position of putting down the lines with both the dip pen and ink and the correction pen. Over the white and lighter areas, draw the line with the pen and ink, copying the dark lines that will show up in contrast against the lighter areas. In the darker areas start to draw your lined image with the correction pen. This will produce a white line that will show up in contrast with the darker areas. See the copies of the Picassos' that I have done.
USING A DIP PEN AND INDIAN INK FREELY (EXPRESSIVELY) AND CONTROLLED (FORMALLY)
The dip pen and ink together are very versatile materials they can be used expressively to produce line and tone drawings. This type of drawing is sometimes referred to as gestural drawing, because it is quick and a lively type of drawing. It is done with speed, and tends to capture movement and rhythm in a drawing as well as form. It can also be used as a very controlled formal material using line and tone to produce very accurate drawings that render form - these two styles can be combined in the one drawing. In the examples you can see the difference between the two types of drawing. I have drawn some details of the body. In the drawings of the hands the first example shows the gestural approach to the drawing. It has the appearance that it has been drawn very quickly trying to capture the structure of the hand. The second drawing of the hand has a more controlled response to the observation. The observation is an analytical breakdown of the hand, using a series of shapes to express an understanding of the hand. The third drawing is a mixture of the two styles -formal to provide a basic structure to the drawing, overlaid by some gestural drawing to help the sense of movement and rhythm.
1/ is a gestural drawing
2/ is a very formal drawing expressing the idea of form. The crosshatch, which is a series of lines that run parallel to each other and can be over laid to build up the density of tone, has been used on this illustration to express the illusion of the form of the head. The tone has been put where you would normally find the tone situated on the head.
In the third illustration there is a mixture of styles. The same is true for the drawings of the foot and the legs.
1/ is the formal approach 2/ is the gestural approach, and 3/ is the mixture of the two styles.
PEN, INK AND WASH DRAWINGS
A pen, ink and wash drawing can be appropriate for any subject - still life, figures, interiors - but I believe it is best suited to landscape work, because of the atmospheric effect one can create with the washes and the textural marks one can make with the pen. For this landscape drawing, you need to stretch a piece of watercolour paper to absorb the washes that are going to be put on the paper. You will also need Indian ink, water, a dish to mix the washes in, a dip pen, a pencil and a flat-headed brush to apply the washes. As with all these drawings choose your composition using a window mount to help you in this decision making. When you are ready, draw your picture outline lightly using your pencil, drawing the contours of the land, the outline of the buildings and the trees, and any other objects in the scene. Then begin to draw and imply the textures such as the brick work on the buildings, the leaves on the trees, the grass and plants, the stone walls and so on.
1/ implies the idea of flowers -the mark consists of a series of buckled circles with a dot in the middle.
2/ three rows of stagger squares gives the impression of the stone work on a cottage.
3/ Bunches of squiggly lines that are placed close to each other so as they overlap gives the impression of a type of tree.
4/ the outline of a post has been drawn and then filled in with a series of parallel straight lines. This gives the impression of wood
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