As well as using tone from observation to construct form or express an emotion we can also use a constructed form of tone to create the illusion of space. In this drawing after Cezanne the tonal drawing is a very formal one and is not very reliant upon observation. Although the basic composition comes from observation, the tone in the drawing is a means to an end, and informs us of a planal recession instead of the idea of volume. Cezanne in this picture seems to go out of his way to deny perspective and instead he emphasises the horizontal and the vertical axis in the drawing.
He also uses a type of shading that
functions on the edges of planes giving them a sense of planal placement in the picture. He builds up the composition in a well orchestrated fashion that has a classical sense of balance and harmony to it.
The shading technique used in this drawing is focused on the inside and the outside edge of the objects in the composition. To create a recession you darken the edge you want to recede. To make a plane edge come forward against its neighbouring edge you make it lighter.
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