Using Erasers To Make Marks

Eraser Drawing Technique

The eraser is a very useful tool when used in conjunction with the charcoal medium either to make marks or to enhance the tonal qualities of a drawing. Making a reduction tone drawing can be a very effective way of creating a drawing. It also makes one think of the eraser as a positive tool rather than something that is used just for erasing mistakes. Like the other mediums, one can devise ways of using the eraser to create a glossary of marks that can be used as an expression for our...

Stretching Paper

Lined Paper With Drawing Space

If you intend to work on paper using washes or a watery solution you need to stretch your paper first in order to stop it buckling. The fibres of the paper will expand when they come into contact with water making the surface of the paper very difficult to work on. The process is very simple but allow plenty of drying time for your preparation. Step 1 Place your paper in a tray of water for at least five minutes or longer. This allows the fibres of the paper to expand. Step 2 Place the wet...

Orthographic Or Elevation Plan

Orthographic drawings represent the object being drawn or designed as flat. They can represent the design as linked individual drawings from all sides. This is usually referred to as plan, front and side elevations. They can best be described as representing a silhouette of an object on the picture plane from one side or the other of the plan. They show one face of the object and from that face the other faces can be planned and plotted. This is technically referred to as the first angle...

Natural Pens And Alternative Mark Makers

This type of pen is usually made from natural material, as opposed to manufactured pens. They can be cut and fashioned to produce a more personalised mark. They are usually made from reed quill or bamboo, and are produced to make a broader mark. However, you can make nibs for your own needs with a sharp knife, razor blade or a quill cutter. One can also make marks with other materials cut into nibs. Here are a few suggestions. A plastic straw can be cut and used as a quill, or a sharpened...

Drawing With

Drawing with ink is the most exciting drawing material in my view. Although pencil and charcoal have certain attributes and characteristics, drawing with ink is so much more demanding and at the same time versatile. The very nature of the ink as a substance and the multiple ways that it can be applied as a medium gives it a wider spectrum of use both in traditional and experimental ways. Personally, I have found that working with ink can help correct our weaknesses and enhance our strengths....

Erasers

Most erasers that are used for charcoal can also be used for graphite. However there are particular erasers that are more appropriate for charcoal mediums. A putty rubber is a very good example, as it seems to soak up the charcoal from the surface of the paper, and it can be kneaded into different shapes to erase in particular ways that enhance the drawing. There are other erasers that also work well with charcoal. A length of cloth can be used to remove charcoal from the surface of the...

Correction

Before correction fluids and pen became widely available on the market it was very difficult to correct a pen, brush, and ink drawing. One used a Chinese white, which was zinc white prepared paint that was painted over the offending area. However, the stain from the ink would often keep showing through. You could also remove the mistake from the paper by using a razor blade or a pumice stone. One could only use this method if the paper was durable enough. However we thankfully have modern...

Ballpoint Pens

Ballpoint pens make a consistent and permanent mark. One can create a dark line or a light line depending on the pressure. Ballpoint pens can be used for both very mechanical or very fluid drawings. They can also be used for making very quick sketches and notes and can be very useful for working in sketchbooks. The ballpoint can also be used on thinner papers, and like the fibre tip pen, it is hard to remedy mistakes. Remember that drawing with this type of pen is usually exploratory in nature...

First Thoughts From Observation

Just like doodles first thoughts from observations are our initial visual response to what stimulates our thinking processes. Most artists always carry a sketchbook with them. It allows us to record moments that include landscapes, portraits, textures, architecture, nature, light, atmosphere, and so on. This is all visual research that is stimulation and a continuous resource for our ideas. Sketchbooks of artists are fascinating to look at, as in the sketchbook you can see the origin of ideas,...

Brushes

Female Anatomy Line Drawings

To put washes down on the paper when working with ink usually means the use of brushes. On the other hand, we can use the brush for what we call brush drawings. The Chinese and the Japanese still use brushes as drawing and writing implements. The brush is also still used in these cultures for ceremonial purposes. Brushes are very versatile, and they are usually made of sable. Sable hair is very consistent and doesn't lose its tension in the mark making process, springing back to its shape and...

Fountain Pens

These are more personalised instruments than the pens previously mentioned, and if you use a fountain pen you should not allow any one else to use it as it wears to your style of writing or drawing with that instrument. These pens should only be used with non-waterproof ink. Otherwise they will clog up. Non-waterproof ink is also useful for using with bleach to draw. I have not given any illustrations of marks made with fountain pens because they are usually associated with writing rather than...

First Encounters With Drawing

Usually our first encounter with drawing is to try to copy something from observation this could take the form of a portrait, still life, or a landscape. When we're children we draw our observations from memory, and when we become more life experienced, we tend to draw direct from observation. This is normally when we encounter our first problems with the art of drawing, as we have fixed in our minds that to be successful with this skill our rendition of what we see must be nothing less than...

First Thoughts And Ideas

Many ideas start with a visual brainstorming. The artist or designer plays with the potential of their ideas in their sketchbooks. They make thousands of rough sketches continually changing and rethinking their ideas. Stretching the thinking and the dynamics of their designs to the limit. Designers work first with open minds, which allows for client comment. Before honing in on a final statement, all this starts with visual thoughts translated through sketches. All those ideas, even the...

Textural Landscape Drawing

After completing your many studies from nature, you should be able to now move out into the landscape and make a more comprehensive study of the subject. As with the other drawings you first need to establish your composition - do this using your viewfinder or window mount. Draw in lightly the outline of the composition. Once you are happy with the structure of the drawing you can now go over it with conte crayon. Now you need to place in the texture. Here is an explanation of the type of...

Ink And Other Materials

Chinese or Indian ink are the most widely used inks for drawing purposes, including technical drawing, brush drawing, calligraphy, washes, and other ceremonial uses. Formulas for making ink may be found in specific books, but basically it is the soot of burnt resin or cherry pits mixed with an aqueous binder (a solution of gum water). This is ground together on a marble slab and made into a paste, which is then shaped into sticks and allowed to dry. To make the ink, the stick is then rubbed...

Introduction

If you are an artist of the first kind, one who wants too much control over the processes, you will find this section of the book challenging. Ink in its most fluid form and used in conjunction with non-traditional applicators will expose you to the experience of letting the processes and the nature of the medium be your guide. This approach may bring you unwittingly to satisfactory visual conclusions that you would never have entertained in your work previously. You will find, however, that...

Info

Sight Size Drawing Instruction

Each head proportion relates to a specific part of the body A. top of head to bottom of chin the figure, using the head proportion as your gauge. It is important to remember always to measure only on the horizontal or vertical axis - if you measure at an angle you will get distortions - and always measure with your arm straight out in front of you and from the same position to maintain consistency. 5 Once you have your vertical and horizontal proportions, you can now transfer this information...

Wet Into

Another way of using the flat head brush and other brushes is to paint wet into wet. This is a process which again has its own beautiful life force. To make a wet into wet mark, dampen your paper (the wetter the paper is the more the mark will spread of its own accord). 1 A wet area has been left on the paper. The ink-loaded brush has then been allowed to touch this wet area to create a flower-like spreading effect. Either a round head or Oriental brush can be used to achieve this. 2 The paper...

Soft Pencil Marks

2B Horizontal rows of scribbled shading. Scribbled lines implying a knitted texture and shadow. Vertical scribble, creating a soft texture and shading. 2B Horizontal rows of scribbled shading. Scribbled lines implying a knitted texture and shadow. Vertical scribble, creating a soft texture and shading. Smudged tone (with the finger) to create atmosphere. Random mark making implying a rough texture. Smudged tone (with the finger) to create atmosphere. Random mark making implying a rough texture....

MHftll

The more water you add the more transparent and thinner the wash will be. The wash is applied by dipping the brush into the ink and applying it in an even coat to the appropriate area. Washes can also be used in a more formal way, to create the illusion of form. This is done by a transition of tone over the object, putting one side of the object in light gradually tonally changing to the other side of the object which would be completely dark. In this type of work you have to take into account...

Drawing With String

Female Anatomy Line Drawings

This drawing is based in memory and imagination, two elements that are very useful resources for artists to draw upon. If we start at the top of the drawing, you will notice that I have used the string in a twirling motion to give the effects of leaves. Sometimes I have built up the tonal areas by making them darker and sometimes I have made areas lighter to give the effect of form and space. The trunk of the tree has been created by dragging the piece of string up the line of the trunk to...

Drawing Techniques

The Complete Book of Drawing Techniques is intended for artists who are looking to expand their knowledge and understanding of materials and the wide range of available media. It will teach them about the characteristics of these media and materials and how to use them to get the required effect. With a unique combination of instruction and practice the book provides examples of the type of mark-making each medium produces. A range of projects then demonstrates effective ways of working with...

Three Types Of Drawing With

Bleach wash drawings Some very interesting results can be achieved by using fountain pen ink. You must first stretch the paper on which you are about to do the drawing, then cover the whole surface with a liberal coating of ink. Allow this to dry. You can now paint different solutions of bleach onto this surface. An important point to remember is that the stronger the bleach the lighter the areas will become. Before embarking on this technique, you should make some practice drawings to...

Gestural Drawing With Graphite

Graphite Drawing Techniques

The next example is a line and tone drawing which derives much of its impact from knocking back with an eraser, a method that is particularly appropriate for figurative portrait work you will find examples of its use in the drawings of Auerbach and Giacometti. You may find it a bit strange at first to reach a certain point and then have to rub out what you have just done, but after spending time practising with the technique you will begin to see what can be achieved with it. 1 Establish the...

Holding The Charcoal

Holding the charcoal can be very different to holding a pencil. The charcoal medium is usually used with speed and lends itself to a more sketching approach to drawing. It is not usually used for detailed drawings and is used more broadly as an expression of our observations. So therefore, the way we approach a charcoal drawing can be very different to how we would usually do a pencil drawing. When we are doing a pencil drawing we tend only to use hand and wrist movement, but when doing a...

Observed Perspective

Perspective Drawing Methods

When drawing perspective from observation you must be able to accurately measure the angles. To start the drawing first establish your composition through your window mount. Once you are happy with your position, establish the first major vertical in the composition. From this we can establish the horizon line or your eye level. It is important that you keep this view constant while you are engaged in the drawing, otherwise you will experience distortion. 1 Start your drawing by assessing where...

Systems For Hard Pencils

Pencil Drawing Techniques

Hard pencils are mostly appropriate for drawings requiring accuracy. As we have pointed out previously, such drawings are usually done by engineers, industrial designers, graphic designers and architects. The final drawings they produce have to be to scale and precise so that other people, such as craftsmen, can follow the instructions to construct or make the designed object. These drawings come in a number of different types of perspective, or parallel projection systems, ranging from flat...

Drawing With Soft Pencils And Graphite

Unlike the hard pencil, the soft pencil and graphite are designed to make a much heavier mark and to create a tonal range -from a very dense black through to white. The soft pencil and graphite enable you to do this quickly and efficiently. The pencil will also allow you to describe shape and form, but you must keep the lead sharpened. The types of drawings associated with these materials are more open and expressive by nature. They relate to our responses, our observations and ideas, and might...

Exercises With Hard Pencils

In this section, we are going to introduce you to a series of projects and exercises that will give you a practical introduction to using the range of hard pencils. As we have previously said, the hard pencil makes a fine precise line. What we shall show you is how that line can be employed to demonstrate your ideas, expressions and observations. First, we must complete a series of exercises to see and experience what we can achieve with the material. In many ways these exercises are like the...

Reasons For Drawing

One of the many approaches to drawing is to use it as a tool to record our first thoughts. These usually take the form of sketches and drawings that have immediacy to them. They are usually spontaneous and inspirational as one is drawing one's thinking process as it happens. This process can initiate new ideas. This procedure is usually done in sketchbooks or on scrap pieces of paper, and they are usually presented as sheets of ideas. These types of drawings are then kept and developed into...

The Ballpoint

Ballpoint Pen Mouth Drawing

On this page you will notice a series of doodles with the ballpoint pen. Starting in the top left hand corner I will describe the top line of marks, and explain the type of marks. However, bear in mind that many drawings done with this type of pen are from the subconscious mind and are really scribbles that are made whilst we should be focusing our attention elsewhere. We usually do these drawings in boring meetings or on the phone pad when we are having a long conversation with someone. The...

Assessing Angles

Figure Drawing Techniques

Posture is the way we hold ourselves and is intimately connected with proportion. As you can see in this example it is shown by using a directional line that determines the angles and proportions of those angles relative to the other relationships of the body and their changing angles. Posture lines usually follow the central dynamics of the pose through the figure. They also pick up the changing edges of the form on the main parts of the body.

Shapes And Form

Sunflowers Drawings Oval

In this next section we are going to look at shape and turning shape into form. The definition of shape is that it has perimeter and lies flat upon the picture plane unless we relate it to other shapes which can then imply space. It is a very useful exercise to practise drawing shapes -squares, circles, triangles, rectangles and any type of organic shape. It is also useful to practise turning shapes into illusions of form for example, making a circle into a sphere, a triangle into a cone, an...

Practising Shape Into Form

Composition Shapes Analysis

Now practise turning shapes into the illusion of form, so the circle becomes a sphere, the triangle a cone, and the oblong a cylinder. We need to understand the properties of shape and form, and how artists use them to create a composition. Without a sense of form you will not be able to produce a finished piece of work. Pyramid shading using vertical lines.

How To Start

Line Drawing Tone And Texture

In the first example you will see that what we have drawn what appears to be a silhouette over the top of the flowers. Do this by starting at the paper's edge on the left hand side, as it is important to make your first connection with your drawing at this point. Start to progress the line towards the centre of the paper following what would be the line that would indicate the back edge of the table where it touches the wall. It is now important to try to assess how far that line goes into the...

Movement

Drawing Shapes With Movement

The importance of movement through the picture plane cannot be over-emphasized. Shape and other pictorial elements help us to create movement. The artist can engage the eye of the viewer so that it moves across the picture plane, stop the eye at a certain point and then move it back into space, bring the eye forward again, and at the same time across the picture space, and then take the eye right out of the picture to the end of its journey. Most viewers are unaware of this visual encounter,...

R

Gericault Drawings

Form of oblong parallel and perspective lines. Crosshatching. POSITIVE COMPOSITION Shape as an underlying compositional device is extremely important. In this example, after Malevich, shape is used to bring a sense of order, balance, rhythm, harmony, movement and space to the picture plane. We see the bones of the composition that any great picture has as its structure. We can compare this drawing to Gericault's Raft of the Medusa. Both have an underlying triangle that appears to pull the eye...

The Moving View

Window Section Drawings

Before the 1900s artists would realise the world from one point or view. The viewer would be presented with that view and would understand the scene from that perspective. This was a traditional way of presenting our understanding of the world two dimensionally that had been used for centuries in a western cultural ideal. However, our attitudes began to change at the beginning of the 20th century, and other ways of seeing began to be explored. Our attitude to the one point view began to change....

The artist wanted The Incised Line

Line Drawing Techniques

The incised line is a line that seems to cut across the paper implying a sense of direction. It is made by using the charcoal on its side to make this precise line. This method of drawing not only picks up the dynamics of direction through the outline of the figure, but at the same time it informs us of the changing planes of the form within the figures.

Method

Name Point Perspective Lesson

Try to do this with a free, expansive movement, sensing the shape rather than using your eye to gauge it precisely. Repeat the shape several times, drawing over your original lines, as I have done here. Now draw an ellipse, as shown, to give the shape the appearance of form. 2 Create the basic form of the neck by adding a cylinder to the bottom of the egg form. 3 Draw in outline the back of the head. Now extend the ellipse to meet these lines, giving the form...

The Process

Frottage Drawing Still Life

1 Transfer the basic sketch to an A1 piece of paper. We have established the basic composition, and the space of that composition is well organised on the piece of paper. 2 Take pieces of your frottage and establish where you would like to use them on your drawing. 3 Always start at the what appears to be the furthest point away in the picture when you decide to stick down your first pieces of frottage. This is usually the horizon or somewhere in the sky. For sticking, I would recommend any...

Making Marks

Charcoal Drawing Techniquess

As with the pencil, before you start to work with it in earnest you should become familiar with the medium and what potential it has. Charcoal is a very natural medium and therefore it does not lend itself to very tight diagrammatic work - it is too messy for that. It fundamentally lends itself to a more fine art and expressive notion of drawing. So it is a more open and expansive type of material to use. The type of charcoal marks that are made in this section tend to imply texture and surface...

Ink Drawing Techniques

Pen And Ink Drawing Nature

5 the windows in this instance have lots of dots that give the impression of a curtain behind the glass. When you are happy that this is correct, you can then start to work with the ink and pen. 6 in this illustration there is the trunk of a tree and the branches - a series of downward marks gives us the idea as to what type of tree it is. 7 the variety of lines tell us about this flower. At the base of the flower, a free flowing line indicates the type of leaf. The stem is a straight line that...

Hard Pencil Marks

Wavy Pattern Pencil Sketch

NB I have not given you examples of mark making with HB or 7H to 9H pencils. Diagonal lines with left and right emphases. Horizontal line achieved with the side of the point. 3H Dragging the side of the Spaced dragged dashes. pencil horizontally in rows of zigzag lines. Diagonals with horizontal and vertical lines. Diagonals with horizontal and vertical lines. Diagonal lines with left and right emphases. Horizontal line achieved with the side of the point. A combination of the previous marks. A...

The Charcoal Pencil

The Charcoal pencil is rather like an ordinary pencil, but it has the sensitivity of charcoal and yet at the same time a degree of control that a pencil has. 1 Diagonal shading used in a sketching technique. 4 Vertical and horizontal squiggly lines. 10 Vertical and horizontal lines moving from light to dark. 12 Right angle lines going from light to dark.

Onepoint Perspective

One Point Perspective Technique

These are the basic rules that govern a one-point perspective drawing, and it is worth remembering that all lines that do not appertain to the horizontal or the vertical axis will go back to or terminate at the perspectival point that as been set up in this drawing. 1 Draw a square on your piece of paper just to the left or the right of the centre of your piece of paper. Make sure that this square runs parallel to the edges of the paper. 2 Now draw a horizontal line across the piece of paper...

Shape Into Form

Different Types Shading Techniques

Shape can very easily be transformed into form by the use of shading. We can see in the drawing after Picasso opposite, below that regular shapes have been given the illusion of three dimensions by using various well-known shading techniques. He has taken these shapes and turned them into representations of human forms. Not only has he given them form, he has given them a character, and a life. He has created the form by using different types of bracelet, crosshatch, and linear lines to build...

Twopoint Perspective

Technique Draw Perspective Drawing

1 In two-point perspective the drawing theory is very much the same. The difference is that the box or cube is set in a different orientation to the picture plane - instead of drawing a square in a facing position or running parallel to the picture plane, as we did in step one for the one point perspective drawing. We instead draw a vertical line just to the left or right of centre. 2 Now put in the horizon line that, for the sake of this example, makes this line cut through the vertical line...

Superficial Muscle

Egon Schiele Online

This drawing of the whole figure see page 142 goes much further than the pure outline of the previous illustrations. In the previous illustrations, the form is only suggested by the convex outlines, but in this drawing the superficial muscle - i.e. the muscle that lies just below the surface of the skin - is not only implied but also drawn much more conclusively. In the next illustration see page 142 we can see that the artist Egon Schiele has used the line to express the opposite effect to...

Converging Projection Systems Or Perspective

Perspective is vital with any technical drawing. Perspective establishes a viewer's cone of vision and a context for objects contained within it. For example, a representation constructed on a picture plane has an established ground and horizon upon which objects can be placed in relation to it. Perspective is distinct from the other drawing systems we have been looking at in that it creates an illusory yet real impression of space which employs an imaginary or observed view created purely...

Rapidograph Or Rotring Pens

The flow of the ink in Rapidograph pens and Rotring pens is controlled through a needle type tube to create a fine definite line. The line produced is even and consistent and nibs of different thickness and grades can be obtained. These pens are used for very accurate drawings and are generally used by professionals such as Architects and Designers. Drawings are usually done to scale and are precise working drawings. This is just the kind of project that, traditionally, the rotring pen has been...

The Oriental Brush And Round Head Brush

Drawing With Chiaroscuro Shading

Oriental brushes are traditional brushes used in Chinese and Japanese drawing and calligraphy. The brush was traditionally used by holding it vertically to the paper and making the marks with free rhythmical strokes. The control in the mark, and the varied weight of mark, are achieved by varying the pressure on the brush. The amount of ink the brush is holding will also have an effect on the nature of the mark. As you can see some brush strokes are strong in definition and some are more...

Conclusion

Now you have completed all the exercises in this book you will have gained an overall knowledge of drawing. You will have experienced, and know how to use drawing materials, you will know what materials are best used for, and you will know how to approach your drawing. Above all, however, you will have a clear understanding that drawing is about how to communicate your observations, your thoughts, and your ideas in response to nature and the world around us.

How To Draw Isometric Drawings

Perspective Road Drawing

Form of geometry to establish the angles. As with the example of the isometric drawing, I have established the 30 angle from using a 90 right angle. You can place a right angle to the vertical and then make an approximation as to the angle of your observation. When you feel confident that the angles of the lines you are about to draw are right, use a ruler to draw them to the point where they converge. At this point you will have established for that building or object one of its vanishing...

Posture

Posture runs hand in hand with proportion. Posture is the way we hold ourselves and has a direct relationship to the changing nature of proportion. As you can see in the example opposite posture is informed by directional lines that are determined by the angles of the body and the relevant proportions in relation to your body when you are in a pose. Posture also allows us to understand and come to terms with the human form that exists in space on a two dimensional surface. The posture lines...

Sunflowers After Van Gogh

When analysing the drawing of sunflowers after Van Gogh I can see quite clearly how important the element of shape is to this piece of work. The negative shape, or the shape around the flowers in this composition is just as important as the flowers or the positive shape, and it is integral in holding the composition together. The negative shape underpins the composition and helps the sense of harmony, balance, proportion, and rhythm that gives the picture its wholeness. Through the negative...

Compressed Charcoal

Compressed Charcoal Techniques

Compressed charcoal is made from finely pulverised high-grade hard charcoal. It is compressed into round sticks and held together with vegetable glue. The soft brittle consistency of the compressed charcoal enables you to create very dense black velvet tones. The tonal value of the charcoal can also feel harsher when applied to the surface of the paper compared to the quality of the tone made with the natural charcoal, which appears much softer and airy. 1 A broad mark made by dragging the...

Wax Crayons

These are very different in character to the previous materials. They are made from a mixture of paraffin pigment and wax. They can come in many different colours and they have a very greasy feel to them just like wax. They are not at all dusty like charcoal so it is not easy to smudge the material. If you need to erase the material on the paper you need to use a solvent and when this is applied it will smear and loosen the wax on the paper. However, it is a very useful material for building up...

Graphite Landscape Drawing

Famous Landscape Drawing

This drawing is very similar to the drawing using continuous line and tone to form the model. Only it is a landscape sketch that is produced here in almost exactly the same way as the life drawing, using the same medium and the same methods. However, this is a sketch and a sketch is different to a drawing. A drawing is something that stands as a work of art in its own right whereas a sketch is meant as a piece of information for the artist to refer to at a later date as a piece of research. You...

Hard Pencil

Hard pencil marks have very little variation in the range of mark making. They only usually vary through a linear progression. Tone is usually made from a build up of crosshatch effects. Hard pencils are denoted by the letter H. As with soft pencils, they come in a range, comprising HB, H, 2H, 3H, 4H, 5H, 6H, 7H, 8H and 9H the hardest . These pencils are mainly for use by designers, architects and people who produce precise technical diagrammatic drawings for which a fine, accurate line is...

Correction Fluid Text For Illustrations

Female Hand Sketch

1 Correction fluid comes in a small plastic bottle and the applicator which is like a small brush is attached to the top of the bottle. To use the fluid dip the brush into the bottle and then apply to the appropriate area. One usually uses this type of application to cover larger areas. 2 Correction pens are made of the same fluid but the applicator is in the fashion of a ballpoint pen. Therefore it is more suitable for correcting fine work, and can also be used to draw with, making a white...

Conte Crayon

Tufts Grass Pen And Ink

Conte crayons come in oblong sticks and in a limited number of grades from soft to hard. The conte crayon is a very traditional material and is made similarly to compressed charcoal. It is a finely ground powder that is mixed with a binder and formed into long sticks. It is more solid than compressed charcoal, and this characteristic makes it very different to charcoal in that it is not as atmospheric in nature. Conte crayons lend themselves more easily to mark making and a technique called...

Willow Charcoal

Willow charcoal is a very good medium for producing strong but fluid line drawings. When we are using line, we must have a clear view of our aims and objectives. This is true of any type of drawing, of course, but line does offer so many different ways for us to express our ideas. One of the most enigmatic things about line is that it is a pure metaphor a metaphor is something that acts for something else . Artists who paint reference colour, and artists who sculpt reference form or shape. Line...

Line Texture Drawing

Quickly Sense Motorcycle Nsu

On this page there is more order to the marks. From the top left there are a series of different marks that have been made with the fibre pen. The first mark is an open squiggle of a line that has a sense of rhythm and movement to it. It is a flowing line but it has a certain speed to it. At the end of the row is a very similar type of line but it appears to be a faster line. Therefore, two lines that are similar in nature have a different idea or sense of time to them. In the middle of the two...

Creating The Illusion Of Form

Shapes Form Drawing

As with some of the earlier examples in the previous sections I have here shown other methods using different pen, ink and brush techniques to create the illusion of form on a two dimensional surface. The first method I have used employs a flat head brush and a series of washes to give the illusion of a sphere. Firstly draw the sphere outline and horizon line at the back to create the composition. Draw also the shape of the shadow. Start by using the Indian ink in the most dark and opaque...

Textured Still Life

Famous Still Life Drawings

Next we look in detail at a very fine example of a textured still life drawing. You can see that there are many objects that have definite textural qualities to them, and they lie juxtaposed to each other to give a textural diversity to the group, which in turn makes the group composition visually very exciting. To make a drawing like this you need to select a number of textural objects, put them together in an interesting composition, and place the textures in such a way that they complement...

Graphite

Graphite is the same medium that pencils are made of. The difference being that pure graphite is not encased in wood. They are in fact solid lengths of graphite that come in different thicknesses and grades of hard and soft. As you might gather from the illustration this type of material is not meant for detailed accurate drawings. Instead it is more suited for robust drawings of an expressive nature, and it works well together with a plastic eraser. The type of drawings we would produce with...

Flat Head Brushes

Charcoal Still Life Drawings

The flat head brush has been fundamentally designed to lay down washes but at the same time it is a very useful tool for making broader marks. Washes are areas of tone that are put down onto the paper. They can range from very light, thin and transparent to dark and opaque. Washes can be used to describe atmospheric effects, typically in landscape drawings. When used in this way, they are usually applied very freely. Sometimes they have a life of their own when they are spread on the paper. You...

Different Type Of Drawing

Texture Drawing Examples

Staying with example 2, we can see how the tiles on the lower part of the building are demonstrated by a series of horizontal lines that run parallel to each other. These are then broken up by a series of diagonal lines that follow and imitate the pitch of the roof. Finally, the doors and windows are filled in with vertical lines. The lines on the door give the impression of wood and the lines on the window give the impression of the reflection of the glass. 3 In these...

Four Ways Of Holding The Charcoal

Matisse Charcoal Drawings

1 2 This demonstrates the two ways that are mostly preferred for sketching with charcoal. 3 Making a mark using the charcoal as demonstrated in number 3 we can make a very sharp cutting line. A line that feels as though it has been incised on the paper. We do this by taking a piece of charcoal that is about 2 long and place it flat on the paper. Holding it between your thumb and fingers pull the charcoal a long the paper support whilst applying pressure. You see that this mark has a character...

Dip Pens

Dip pens are so called because unlike the other pens mentioned these pens do not supply their own flow of ink - they have to be dipped into a pot of ink before they are able to make a mark. Mapping pens or nibs are used for very fine detail only and fine cross-hatching. The different Gillot nibs are designed to give you a more varied line according to the angle that you hold the pen, and the pressure you apply. The flow of ink to the nib from the dip pen is very different to the flow of other...

Felt Tip Pens

Felt tip pens come in all different sizes and shaped tips like the fibre tip pens. These pens are best used for quick drawings and sketches and as with the other pens mentioned so far it is difficult to correct your mistakes. They also come in many different colours, and are often used as calligraphy pens for signs. There is an example of a felt tip drawing on page 185. Here we have a drawing that reflects the use of the different thickness of felt tip pens, and notice the openness and the...

Felt Tip Pen Project Drawing Of A Harbour

Pen Drawing Techniques

Start this drawing by drawing the composition first with pencil. That way, if you make any mistakes you can rectify them by rubbing them out. To establish the composition or the drawing on the paper, use your previous learning. For example, use the window mount to help you frame your picture. As you look through the window on the world move it about to establish a composition that you are happy with. Then draw what you see through the window on to your paper, placing and mapping the objects in...

Creating Form Using Tone

Illusion Form

The tone used here relies on an observed directional light source, which is then exaggerated to create the effect. The shadow cast makes us believe the sphere has form. Without it the drawing would look flat. This cube has been constructed using three defined tonal variations - white, grey and black - to give the illusion of form. It is a constructed illusion, of course, and has not come about as a result of observed tonal changes. The lighting appears to be from the front in this example of...

Applying Mark Making

Life Object Still Pencil Drawing

We are now going to do a series of studies and drawings based in mark making. These drawings are textural drawings, and are standard drawings for students of the arts. Having practised mark making we now need to apply that experience. Firstly, it is advised to make studies of objects that have obvious textural qualities. The drawings that you make of these objects should imply the textured surfaces. In the examples of the drawn objects, you can see that the textures is the main force of the...

Drapery

Cast Shadow Drawing

Another way of working with drapery, which gives a more static effect and is more or less the opposite to the previous approach, in that instead of movement we create a sense of form that has a weight and stillness to it. Artists would use this way of working to create an illusion of mass that would reflect the underlying form. Look at the example below and also refer to the works of Massacio, Cezanne, and some of the works of Picasso. Drape a large sheet over a simple form a chair so it...

The Pencil As A Measuring Device

Pencil Technique Draw Body Proportion

We can analyse our observations in a number of ways to enable us to make a visual record of what we see. One of these ways involves using the pencil both as mark maker and measuring device. What you are doing in effect is building a grid on which to map out your drawing. This approach is appropriate for all types of observational drawing and for different subjects ranging from landscape and still life to figure drawing. I have chosen a figure for our example because the pencil is still the most...

Tonal Drawing Using Graphite Or Very Soft Pencil

Portrait Draw With Tonality

This is a tonal portrait drawing based in observation and it is done using a very soft pencil - 8b. The first concerns of this drawing are to create a sense of the fundamental form by observing the nature of the effects of light. You will notice there is a very strong direct light that plays over the surface of the subject. Stepl establish the basic form of the head by drawing an ovoid or an egg shape. Draw two lines for the neck, and then two arced lines for the shoulders. This will give you...

Texture Studies From Nature

Manga Head Perspective

Here we have more excellent drawings from students who have applied their knowledge of texture to another subject - nature. Firstly, as we did with the previous drawings the students have focused in on single objects from nature. These drawings can quite easily be done in sketchbooks out in the field or brought back into the studio environment. This research is a way of storing information for future use, and indeed if you look in the sketch books of artists such as Leonardo da Vinci you will...

Frottage

Max Ernst Frottage Drawing

Frottage is a French term and it means to take an impression by rubbing. We have probably all done some frottage at some point or other. Have you ever taken a rubbing from a coin when you were little Then that was a work of frottage. Brass rubbing is another form of frottage. As a drawing technique and process we can expand and use frottage as a tool to express our ideas and it has been used by many artists particularly in the twentieth century for this very purpose. No less an artist than Max...

Tonking

Drawing With Chiaroscuro Shading

Tonking is a well-established way of erasing or knocking back a charcoal drawing. It was devised, I am led to believe, by one Professor Sir Henry Tonks. 1 Sketch your drawing in very basically using line to establish the composition. Then apply the tone from your observation to the drawing. Do this in a very broad way giving the drawing a black and white appearance. 2 Take a soft cloth and beat back the drawing dispersing the tone, and at the same time knocking back the tonal density of the...

Planometric Projections

Perspective Drawing Lesson Two Point

First introduced by Auguste Choisy at the end of the 19th century, and the favoured system of Le Corbusier and Theo van Doesburg, these projections were primarily produced for architects. This type of presentation gives a truer, three- dimensional illusory understanding of the space and form of a building produced from a plan in scale, and has become very popular among architects. creative roots and needs. The constructed perspective drawing is dominated by pure theory the observed perspective...

Fibre Tip Pens

There is a vast array of pens that can be used for many different reasons by artists. Fibre tip pens come in many different thickness' and different tip shapes. The fibre tip pen is a very direct medium and they are designed to make very general quick but accurate drawings that are free flowing. It is difficult to correct fibre tipped drawings so mistakes should be taken as a part of the process with this type of drawing. The tip of this type of pen can become worn quite quickly and the...

Compressed Charcoal Drawing Drapery

Example Painting Drapery For Still Life

Historically drapery has been used for centuries by artists and studied by students and artists apprentices. One has to go no further than the drapery studies of Leonardo da Vinci to see it was an integral part of their research. There are three drapery projects that are a fundamental to widening our visual literacy, and compressed charcoal is the medium that is most appropriate for this. Many artists in the past would use drapery as compositional device to create an underlying structure for...

Negative Space And Chiaroscuro

Chiaroscuro Drawing Technique

Compressed charcoal is very useful for making strong lines and very dark dramatic tones. The next series of examples will highlight how to use the medium for this purpose. The drawings use the negative space way of working we encountered in the Pencils section see the examples after Van Gogh beginning on page 40. This well established method entails drawing the space around objects to establish the composition. The second stage of the drawing requires you to look analytically at the nature of...

Fixing Your Charcoal Drawing

Geometric Shading With Charcoal

Charcoal is, as we have mentioned, a very unstable material. Once applied to the surface of the paper or support it can easily be erased or smudged, especially accidentally. When you are satisfied that your charcoal drawing has reached a point where you feel it is finished, it is important that you stabilise the drawing immediately on to the support. This is what is termed fixing the drawing. Fixative is a solution that acts as a binder. It seals the charcoal or the pastel on to the support...

Experimental Mark Making With

Brush And Ink Drawings

Try to approach this without any preconceived ideas about what the marks should look like, as there is no formula or recipe for this way of working. It is a way of making a personal vocabulary of marks that can be used as references for future drawings. I can explain how I made my examples but it is very important that you expand upon these and discover your own natural method of working. You can use any type of ink I used Indian ink. The implements used were chosen at random, just to give you...

The Window Mount Or Viewfinder

Sighting Drawing Technique

Using a window mount is a marvellous way of composing your picture and getting the objects in the scene proportionally and positionally correct. Cut the window to scale in relation to your paper. To do this and get accurate proportions in relation to your paper, follow these instructions. Step 1 Take the paper you are going to draw on and make a diagonal line from one corner to the other. Step 2 Decide how big you want your window aperture to be. For example, if you want the height of your...

Bleach Wash And Mark Making Drawing

Bleach Drawing

This is a very striking way of working, in that it brings such a luminous effect to the drawing. Drawings using this medium rely strongly on the effects of light. For this exercise you will need a selection of brushes that you think are appropriate to the marks you need to make. You will also need to stretch some paper because in the first example we are going to cover the surface of the paper with ink. Indian ink will not do for this work as when it dries it becomes waterproof and therefore...

Projection Systems And Theoretical Drawings

Theoretical drawing systems include orthographic drawings, planometric drawings, isometric or parallel drawing systems, trimetric, and perspective. These drawing systems are very useful particularly for architects and designers. They are usually used as presentation drawings for clients. The orthographic or the planometric system of drawing is probably the easiest to understand as this is just a flat representation of an object, usually from the front and is done to a scale. See the example on...

Isometric Or Parallel Projections

Projection System Drawing

To help engineers, architects and designers give a fuller three-dimensional understanding and impression of their ideas and finished works, other methods of drawing were developed from orthographic projection. First came the isometric projection process, introduced by an English contemporary of Monge, Sir William Farish, which enabled all the faces of the front, side and plan to be joined together. Using a specific angle from the 90 degrees angle creates these drawing systems. For instance, an...

Trimetric Projections

Trimetric projections are very similar to isometric projections and are used for similar reasons. The difference being that the trimetric projection can present different orientations of a box or object on the same picture plane. Therefore, what we have are different degrees of orientation. This type of drawing is very useful as a diagrammatic drawing that is used to help you assemble or even take apart a piece of furniture or machinery. One usually sees these types of drawings in car manuals.

The Trimetric System In

How Draw Trimetric

Industrial designers use the trimetric system to 'crate' a form that is, to put it in a box. The shape of the object is drawn on the front face of the box and then the form of the shape is projected back into the 'crate'. By encasing volume and form in this way, designers can visualise how their ideas will appear in reality.

Charcoal

Charcoal is the oldest medium of the three materials in this section. It is made from wood that has been slowly charred in a controlled firing. The material takes on the natural form of the wood that can range from a twig to something as large as a branch. The largest piece of charcoal I have seen is up to 2 inches thick and this is called scene painters charcoal. Charcoal is a material that has been around since the dawn of man. As man discovered fire then he discovered charcoal, inadvertently...

Other Types Of Pencil

Other types of pencil are available to us as well as those described above, and these offer even more opportunities for experimentation and discovery. You will find all of the types recommended below in any good art supply shop. Peel-back pencil - graphite encased, or coiled, in twists of paper which are peeled back to reveal the graphite. Propelling pencil - comes in a variety of mechanisms which reveal the point of the graphite. Clutch pencil - provides a very soft point fine or thick for...

Linear And Tonal Drawing Using Graphite And Plastic Eraser

Expressive Drawing Using Eraser

This is a line and tone drawing of the female nude, but it is a very different in concept to the last drawing. Whereas the last drawing was based in the analytical observation of light and how it falls on the form, this drawing is more of an expressive metaphor of the reality we are seeing. 1 In stage one of the examples we are drawing with a continuous line. That line is made by not taking your graphite off the paper until that section of the drawing is finished. This line is trying to...

Soft Pencil

Soft Pencil Sketches

The soft pencil has more versatility for creating tone and textures than the hard pencil. Soft pencils are denoted by the letter B. The HB pencil is a mixture of hard and soft and is the pivotal pencil between the two extremes. The range of soft pencils available consists of HB, B, 2B, 3B, 4B, 5B, 6B, 7B, 8B and 9B the softest . These pencils are designed for the fine artist to express particular ideas, for example through the building of tone, the creation of texture, cross-hatching or even...

Light And Dark Soft Pencils

Our first concern in this series of drawings is to create the fundamental form of the head, neck and shoulders if the light is coming from a fixed position on one side of the figure. In our example the light is coming from a fixed position on the left side. Once the fundamental form is established, you can concentrate on modelling the form through observation of how the shadows are cast and how they fall over the form. The figure here has the appearance of being constructed out of pure light.

Linear Shading Techniques Using Willow Charcoal

Shading Techniques Buildings

1 - 6 Show a series of techniques on how to build up crosshatching to create shading, and in turn, these techniques are used to create the illusion of form. 1 Diagonal parallel lines created by using the side of the charcoal. See holding the charcoal. 2 Diagonal lines in parallel directions. One set in one direction and the other set layered over the top going in the other direction. 4 Vertical parallel lines over layered by horizontal parallel lines. 5 Section 2 over-layered by section 3 shows...

Constructed Tone Landscape After Cezanne

Landscape Drawing Techniques

As well as using tone from observation to construct form or express an emotion we can also use a constructed form of tone to create the illusion of space. In this drawing after Cezanne the tonal drawing is a very formal one and is not very reliant upon observation. Although the basic composition comes from observation, the tone in the drawing is a means to an end, and informs us of a planal recession instead of the idea of volume. Cezanne in this picture seems to go out of his way to deny...