Drawing Techniques

Exercises With Hard Pencils

In this section, we are going to introduce you to a series of projects and exercises that will give you a practical introduction to using the range of hard pencils. As we have previously said, the hard pencil makes a fine precise line. What we shall show you is how that line can be employed to demonstrate your ideas, expressions and observations. First, we must complete a series of exercises to see and experience what we can achieve with the material. In many ways these exercises are like the...

Planometric Projections

First introduced by Auguste Choisy at the end of the 19th century, and the favoured system of Le Corbusier and Theo van Doesburg, these projections were primarily produced for architects. This type of presentation gives a truer, three- dimensional illusory understanding of the space and form of a building produced from a plan in scale, and has become very popular among architects. creative roots and needs. The constructed perspective drawing is dominated by pure theory the observed perspective...

How To Draw Isometric Drawings

Form of geometry to establish the angles. As with the example of the isometric drawing, I have established the 30 angle from using a 90 right angle. You can place a right angle to the vertical and then make an approximation as to the angle of your observation. When you feel confident that the angles of the lines you are about to draw are right, use a ruler to draw them to the point where they converge. At this point you will have established for that building or object one of its vanishing...

Drawing With Soft Pencils And Graphite

Unlike the hard pencil, the soft pencil and graphite are designed to make a much heavier mark and to create a tonal range -from a very dense black through to white. The soft pencil and graphite enable you to do this quickly and efficiently. The pencil will also allow you to describe shape and form, but you must keep the lead sharpened. The types of drawings associated with these materials are more open and expressive by nature. They relate to our responses, our observations and ideas, and might...

Negative Space And Chiaroscuro

Compressed charcoal is very useful for making strong lines and very dark dramatic tones. The next series of examples will highlight how to use the medium for this purpose. The drawings use the negative space way of working we encountered in the Pencils section see the examples after Van Gogh beginning on page 40. This well established method entails drawing the space around objects to establish the composition. The second stage of the drawing requires you to look analytically at the nature of...

Charcoal is, as we have mentioned, a very unstable material. Once applied to the surface of the paper or support it can easily be erased or smudged, especially accidentally. When you are satisfied that your charcoal drawing has reached a point where you feel it is finished, it is important that you stabilise the drawing immediately on to the support. This is what is termed fixing the drawing. Fixative is a solution that acts as a binder. It seals the charcoal or the pastel on to the support...

Drawing Techniques

The Complete Book of Drawing Techniques is intended for artists who are looking to expand their knowledge and understanding of materials and the wide range of available media. It will teach them about the characteristics of these media and materials and how to use them to get the required effect. With a unique combination of instruction and practice the book provides examples of the type of mark-making each medium produces. A range of projects then demonstrates effective ways of working with...

Bleach Wash And Mark Making Drawing

This is a very striking way of working, in that it brings such a luminous effect to the drawing. Drawings using this medium rely strongly on the effects of light. For this exercise you will need a selection of brushes that you think are appropriate to the marks you need to make. You will also need to stretch some paper because in the first example we are going to cover the surface of the paper with ink. Indian ink will not do for this work as when it dries it becomes waterproof and therefore...

Tonal Drawing Using Graphite Or Very Soft Pencil

This is a tonal portrait drawing based in observation and it is done using a very soft pencil - 8b. The first concerns of this drawing are to create a sense of the fundamental form by observing the nature of the effects of light. You will notice there is a very strong direct light that plays over the surface of the subject. Stepl establish the basic form of the head by drawing an ovoid or an egg shape. Draw two lines for the neck, and then two arced lines for the shoulders. This will give you...

Ink Drawing Techniques

5 the windows in this instance have lots of dots that give the impression of a curtain behind the glass. When you are happy that this is correct, you can then start to work with the ink and pen. 6 in this illustration there is the trunk of a tree and the branches - a series of downward marks gives us the idea as to what type of tree it is. 7 the variety of lines tell us about this flower. At the base of the flower, a free flowing line indicates the type of leaf. The stem is a straight line that...

The Window Mount Or Viewfinder

Using a window mount is a marvellous way of composing your picture and getting the objects in the scene proportionally and positionally correct. Cut the window to scale in relation to your paper. To do this and get accurate proportions in relation to your paper, follow these instructions. Step 1 Take the paper you are going to draw on and make a diagonal line from one corner to the other. Step 2 Decide how big you want your window aperture to be. For example, if you want the height of your...

Different Type Of Drawing

Staying with example 2, we can see how the tiles on the lower part of the building are demonstrated by a series of horizontal lines that run parallel to each other. These are then broken up by a series of diagonal lines that follow and imitate the pitch of the roof. Finally, the doors and windows are filled in with vertical lines. The lines on the door give the impression of wood and the lines on the window give the impression of the reflection of the glass. 3 In these...

Felt Tip Pen Project Drawing Of A Harbour

Start this drawing by drawing the composition first with pencil. That way, if you make any mistakes you can rectify them by rubbing them out. To establish the composition or the drawing on the paper, use your previous learning. For example, use the window mount to help you frame your picture. As you look through the window on the world move it about to establish a composition that you are happy with. Then draw what you see through the window on to your paper, placing and mapping the objects in...