Difference between "Working" and "Workshop" Drawings. Methods of preparing Workshop Drawings for Various Trades. Joiners' Rods — difference between setting-out material and setting-out rods. Purposes of a Rod -what it should contain, and what it should not. Standard Widths of Rods. How to indicate Sections, Broken Sections, Dimension lines. Method of dealing with Long Rods. Where to start Setting-out. Datum Points. Setting-out a Venetian Window- -details of procedure. A Pair of Circular headed Doors and Finishings--the necessary Rods. What the *' Height Rod. '' should contain. The Elevation Rod—method of setting it out. The Question of Joints. Bricklayers' Setting-out. A Semicircular Arch in a Circular Wall, with Parallel Jambs anil Level Soffit—drawback of the "centre" method. The Geometrical Method, obtaining Templets and Soffit Mould. A Circlc-on-Circlc Opening with splayed Jambs and Soffit. Producing the Section. Obtaining Soffit Mould. Setting out an Octagonal Chimney Stark. Alternative Methods of Setting out Octagons. Obtaining the Bevels for cutting Templets
The term " workshop drawing " is used to differentiate those drawings prepared directly for the workman's use in setting out his material; from the detail drawings prepared by an architect for the use of the builder, which arc generally known as working drawings. (For a fuller definition of these, see Chapter I.) In a sense, both of these kinds of drawings can be said to be working drawings, as they have to be " worked " to, but in the case of small scale drawings a certain amount of translation or calculation is necessary before the work can be put in hand, whilst the drawings now to be described are invariably made full size, so that the workman can apply his material directly to them for the
purpose of setting it out, and shaping it. These drawings, in the case of carpentry work of large size, are usually set out with chalk upon a large floor or platform ; in the case of joinery work, in pencil, upon planed and whitened hoards termed " rods," or occasionally upon large sheets or strips of white paper, the kind used by paperhangers for lining ceilings. Masons' and carvers' work is usually set out on sheets of brown paper, a special stiff and smooth-surfaced kind; bricklayers' work either on " centres " or upon large battened " boards," or on slabs of slate.
Joineis' Rods.—The preparation of these is usually described as " setting-out," but the tenn should not be confused with the operation of placing shoulder lines, and marking bevels, scribes, mortises, tenons, dovetails and various other joints upon the prepared material, which is also collectively known as " setting-out " in the workshop. With this latter operation, which has practically nothing to do with drawing in the onlinary sense of the term, tliis book does not deal, but so far as it refers to joiners' work the subject has been fully described in the author's " Modern Practical Joinery."
A joiner's " rod " is a full size section or sections of the piece of work to be executed, and is intended to facilitate the actual setting-out of the various members of the construction and to obtain the correct quantities of the material, also to be a convenient record for future reference in connection with the same, or other work upon the building. Obviously, to meet these requirements the drawing should be exact as to shape and dimensions, should be clear and definite as to the intentions of the person setting it out, and, saving actual blundering or ignorance upon the part of the workman, it slioidd be impossible for it to have more than one reading.
Foremen and " setters-out" will, of course, have different opinions as to what is necessary to place upon a rod, or what to omit, and the instructions given herein, though based upon the author's lengthy experience in such work,
can only be taken as guides, whose course it may be necessary to vary with circumstances. In the author's opinion the simpler a rod can be made the better it will be for the workman—i.e. no superfluous lines should be employed, although such lines represent an edge or a member in the finished work, and are upon the architect's drawing ; if they are not actually required for the subsequent setting-out purposes they are out of place upon the rod, and likely to lead to errors. Inexperienced setters-out sometimes pride themselves upon their rods being " pictures," and complacently state that every line in the job is there. Probably true, to the discomfiture of the workman and loss to the employer.
Compare the two sides of Fig. 3, page 186, and consider which is the easier to understand. All that is absolutely necessary to obtain the moulds required for the job is shown upon the right-hand half, and the left-hand half, though a more correct drawing in elevation, does not contain all that is necessary, and it contains much that is useless and liable to mislead.
It often requires serious consideration as to the best way to set out a piece of work on the rod; the setter-out must form in his mind's eye the completed job as the designer describes it in the drawings and specifications, and must decide upon the main principles of construction ; also, if it is a large piece of work, whether it can be fixed, or can be conveyed from the workshop to the building, in one piece. He, of course, has not to consider the minor details of construction, the " putting together " ; this is a matter tor the workman, but careful planning is often necessary to ensure the proper fitting and arrangement of adjacent parts, in elaborate finishings, etc., that have to be set out in sections or portions upon several rods. Having broadly decided upon the construction, the next essential is to see that ever}' piece or member of the structure has its length, width and thickness shown, and that parts that are in sections are clearly distinguished from those show"n in elevation, upon
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