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Roman they are always joined to the limb by curved lines. The limbs of the curved letters, B, R, S, etc., swell in the middle of the stroke, the up and terminal strokes of the others being fine.

Stone (No. 2).—This is a purely modern ornamental letter, shaded on one side, and is technically known as " open "—i.e. the limbs are bounded by two fine lines without ink or colour between. If partially filled in with dot and curve as shown it becomes " ornamented open stone." In this type the serif is of substantial proportions.

Italics (No. 3).—Also termed sloping Roman. This is one of the easiest types to form with the writing pen. Originally it was the printers' imitation, in type-letters, of handwriting, which is naturally sloping. It was first used by t he Italian printers, hence the term, " italics." If these small letters were made upright they would then be termed lower-case Bom an.

Block (Nos. 4, 6 and 7), also called sanserif—i.e. without serifs--is of three varieties: "solid," as No. 4; " open," as No. 7, and " sloping," as No. 6 ; the latter is shown also with a variation known as " half tilled." The essentials of this type are that all the limbs should be of equal thickness and that the various limbs join each other at right or acute angles—i.e. they do not flow into each other by easy curves as do the Roman, but join up abruptly. It is a purely mechanical type of letter, but none the less useful on that account.

Egyptian (No. 5), also known as black letter, is generally used on technical drawings in conjunction with " block " reference letters, as shown in the example. The ruling of the heavy line below, as shown in Nos. 4 and 5, though now usual in modern offices, is not invariable. It should be confined to more important sub-titles that are desired to "leap to the eye" immediately on inspection. No. it is termed "sloping Egyptian." The characteristic of this type is that the letter is made of equal thickness throughout.

4o DETAILS OF LETTERING

Stump (No. 8).—This is quite a modern and clean-cut type of lettering not greatly differing from italics., hut more nearly approaching cursive or running hand : its principal characteristic is that each letter, though made in " flowing" style, finishes abruptly without connection with its neighbour, which gives it much distinctness.

The lettering of the plates throughout this book is in '* stump."

The Numerals.—No. 9 is Egyptian. No. 10, originally termed Arabic, is now frequently called Roman. The real " Roman " type, in which letters are used as figures, is but seldom adopted in the drawing office.

Details of Lettering.—It is most essential that the letters in a word or series of words should be of uniform size and accurately in line. This does not imply that each letter shall occupy exactly the same space, for that is obviously impossible if we consider the various shapes of letters, but that letters similar in shape shall be similar in size throughout : and symmetry for the whole group of letters is then obtained by judicious spacing, which is dealt with farther on. Take, for example, the word " Elevation." typo No. 3. It will be found by trial with the dividers that, leaving the serifs out of consideration, such letters as n, a, e and v are all of one size; so also are 1, t and /, but these do not occupy so much space as the former letters. Such letters as C, D, G, O, etc., will also be similar in size, but occupying more space than either of the former.

To ensure uniformity in height and alignment, it is necessary to rule lines locating the tops and bottoms of the letters, as shown in the examples by dotted lines ; these, of course, will be done in pencil when copying, to be rubbed out after the letters are inked in. There is a school of faddists who decry the ruling of lines or the use of any mechanical aids to accuracy as tending to destroy the " freehand " ability of the draughtsman.

These extremists, however, have few if any cMsciples

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