4i among practical draughtsmen ; the waste of time, especially by novices, in obtaining anything like satisfactory results without such assistance, places this absolute freehand method outside practical consideration. A slavish copying, or entire reliance upon set squares and rulers is not here advocated, but judicious use of them as aids to the beginner is recommended. With letters of types No. 2 or No. 7, four guide lines may be used; their object will be obvious upon inspection. Where capitals and small capitals, as in Nos. 1 and f>, or capitals and " lower case " letters, as in Nos. 3 -5 and 8 are used, three lines are required. There are so few letters with " tails " that it is seldom necessary to use a line for them; slight irregularity in these is less noticeable than with the tops or rising limbs.
Solid block, as No. 4. and numerals, as Nos. 9 and 10, require two lines only. The choice of upright or sloping letters is mainly one for individual taste, but whichever is adopted, the same style should be adhered to throughout, with numerals to match.
The slope or inclination to be given is also largely a matter of taste. Too great an inclination should be avoided, as this conveys the impression that the letters are falling over. Some few draughtsmen use the 6o° set square as a guide, but in the author's opinion this gives rather too much leaning, and he suggests 65", as indicated in Fig. 13, page 37, as more suitable for genera.! work.
Balance.—The symmetrical letters, or those with double inclined limbs, as A, V, W, X, Y, Z, and the curved letters, as C, G, 0, O, should have neither limb arranged to the common slope, but a line passing through the middle of the letter should lie in the slope, as indicated in Fig. 12, where the right and wrong method of balancing the letter A is shown, as an example of what to do and what to avoid.
Proportion.—It has already been pointed out that the letters as a whole must be made proportionate to the size
of the sheet they are to occupy; large letters should be used for main headings or titles ; important sub-headings should be of medium size and details, which may be numerous, should be of a smaller size. The relative size of either of these classes is shown in the diagram, Fig. 13, p. 37. In addition to this some attention must be given to the proportion of parts in the letters ; otherwise 1 he result will be either weak and ineffective or simply absurd. The proportions adopted in these examples for the rising limbs of letters, and for the major caps, where two sizes are used, is to divide the total height intended for the letters into three equal parts, allotting two parts to the bodies and
ABCDEFGHIJKLM NOPQRSTUVWXYZ nb cdefghijklmri op cjrs t u vwxyz
Typical Alphabets—Roman Capitals, Italic Smalls minor caps and one part to the rising limb or heads as indicated by the dotted lines, or, in the case of major capitals, carrying these up to the third part.
The Roman and block letters B, R and S should be larger or heavier at the bottom part, so also should the numerals 3, 5, 6 and 8. The middle bar of the E, F and II should be either at the middle of the height or slightly above it. never below: on the contrary, the cross bar of A and lower bar of I' must be below the middle.
Spacing.—This is the most difficult part of lettering which the inexperienced draughtsman will have to overcome, and it is with the object of assisting him in this that the most frequently occurring combinations of letters upon architectural drawings have been chosen for examples,
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