French Curves

bank, it casts freely in warm weather, and thus will rise from the paper in places, allowing the pencil to slip under and make an irregular line. It may be restored to shape by dipping in hot water and placing under a weight. Vulcanite is cheaper and stands well, but is liable to break if dropped ; probably it is the most popular material.

Architectural or French Curves, Fig. 14.—These are shaped pieces of thin pear-wood or celluloid, cut into various circular or elliptic designs for the purpose of guiding the inking pen when drawing curved lines. Their use with the pencil is to be deprecated, as tending to discourage that freedom of hand necessary for good draughtsmanship. Their methods of use will be dealt with in the next chapter.

Instruments. —There are to be found in the shops that deal in artists' and students' requirements an immense variety of these " tools " and appliances, and the inexperienced reader of a maker's catalogue is bewildered by the numerous varieties ot the same instruments shown therein, and, without advice from an experienced draughtsman, is very likely to make a wrong selection. Many of the instruments shown are only of service to specialists; others are merely time savers, the work they are designed to execute being within the capacity, with a little skill on the part of the user, of much lower priced instrument« of general utility. With the former it is not the purpose of this book to deal. Only those things that may be considered necessary for the ordinary workman student's purpose will be described. It would be useless attempting to indicate what prices should be paid, as tastes will differ as to the design of instruments. This, with the quality and amount of finish given to them, has considerable influence upon the cost. All that can be stated in this direction is that the higher priced article is generally the cheaper in the long run —that is, it will remain in good order the longest time. British-made instruments are usually more reliable lhan foreign made, and they should be purchased either from the makers or dealers who specialise in these things rather than from the ordinary stationers or

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