The Cabinet Screwdriver, Figs. 7 and 8, will afford excellent practice In " balancing"—that is, making the opposite parts symmetrical or alike on each side of a centre line. Tliis line should first be drawn, then horizontals at various points of chief departure in the curves, and dimension points marked upon them. These will form the main guide points, and others can be placed between, until sufficient are obtained to complete the curves. The ends of the ferrule are curved, to convey the impression of roundness, which is further suggested by the shade lines. These will be referred to in the next illustration, Fig. 9. which is a Hollow Cylinder or pipe as viewed when standing upright just below the level of the eye. Draw the central or axis line joining the centres of the two ends ; at the extremities, draw lines at right angles to the axis. These will be the diameters of the ends and the correct width or diameter should be ticked off thereon, and the two sides of the cylinder drawn. The true shape of the cylinder is a circle, but, as stated in a previous chapter, a circle viewed at any other angle than a right angle to its plane will be seen as an ellipse, the minor axis of which varies as the angle. We need not trouble to draw this axis and plot the curve geometrically as, if the drawing is approximately correct, it will convey the impression intended. Mark a series of points equally on each side of the diameter lines and draw in the curves; avoid making the ends too pointed, and make the lower ellipse slightly wider than the upper, as, being lower, more of the plane can be seen. The effect of roundness is given by drawing a series of straight lines from about one-quarter of the width to the edges, gradually increasing their distance apart as the middle is approached. This gives the appearance of light upon the near portion, and a gradually increasing shade as the parts recede.
A Stone Baluster, Fig. xo, is another simple exercise in symmetrical figures. One-half shows the preparatory steps and the other half the completed drawing. The dotted line drawn parallel with the centre is merely a convenience tor
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