finishing the drawing when it is not intended to ink it. 13 is serviceable for shading and freehand work, but as the various makers' " degrees " differ, the selection should be made by experiment. When a suitable pencil is found, the same brand should be adhered to always. It may be added that no pencil sold for less than a penny need be cxpected to give satisfactory work, and higher priced ones are cheaper in the end, as they last longer. The hexagon shape, a, Fig. i, page 26, is the best to use, as it will not roll off the sloping board. Special small pencils are made to fit various compasses; but the author personally prefers to split down a piece of ordinary size pencil and extract the lead, which is then rolled up in a strip of paper, pasted or gummed until the right size is obtained to fit the holder. These " paper " pencils are easier to keep in order than the wood-cased ones, and the same depth of tone can be obtained in the curves as in the other parts of the drawing. The best way to sharpen these is to wrap a narrow strip of line glass paper around the point, then revolve the pencil between the thumb and finger.
Rubber is used for erasing pencil lines; only a " soft " kind should be used, so that the surface of the paper is not destroyed. Square blocks are used for extensive alterations and cleaning, and wedge-shaped pieces for small erasures. On 110 account should a hard rubber, or so-called " ink eraser," be used, as this destroys the surface of the paper, so spoiling the appearance of the drawing. Drawing that requires considerable cleaning should be rubbed over with slightly stale or dry bread crumb, the palm of the hand being used for the purpose.
Drawing Pins, Fig. 21, p. 11.—These are used for securing the paper to the board; medium sizes are the best, and those with domed or bevelled heads which allow the T-square to pass over them without catching. The perfect drawing pin. however, has yet to be invented. Most of those in use are injurious either to the paper, the board or the linger nails, also to the temper of the user.
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