Theory Of Orthographic Projection

But for the moment 'we will conline our attention to those marked a-b, c-d and e. a-I is the vertical Jane, and c-d the horizontal plane e is a special or auxiliary vertical plane perpendicular to the other two, which are known as co-ordinate planes. Now, if we stand exactly in front of the prism, looking in the direction of the arrow II, we shall see the side marked 1, 2, 3, 4, but though we know that it is inclined, having tho solid before us, we cannot see the inclination in this position....

Method Of Drawing

Ectomorph Comic

Next scale otf tlie thickness of the doors, ends and back as given in the specifications, and draw in parallel lines representing the insides then set off the stiles. To obtain position of meeting stiles, set off a centre line in the width. This will be i ft. 8 in. from either end, the bead is in. wide, so set off in. on each side of centre line, then 3J in. each side, which will be the inner edges of the stiles. Next set off , in. within these edges for plough grooves...

J

Section of Diagram, p. 117, perpendicular to Picture Plane which must be at right angles with the plan of the P.P. Next we fix on plan the position of the S.P. from the P.P. at such a distance from the object that a cone of visual rays, having a vertical angle of about 40 at the S.P., will entirely envelop it (see Fig., page 1x6). The reason for limiting this angle is that if a much wider angle be adopted there will be an appearance of distortion in the resulting perspective view. The student...

Venetian Frame

Elevations Oval Shaped Buildings

Rod, and it contains a section taken through one of the side lights, which are fixed, the central pair of sashes only opening. This is indicated by the grooves for the cord at the head. The rod is 9 in. wide and the frame is fixed within a 4J in. reveal in a 13J in. wall, which, as w'll be seen by the enlarged detail, Fig. 5, leaves 9J in. to be covered by the frame and the lining. As the architrave projects beyond this, it is obviously impossible to put it all in on 9 inches. One method of...

Width Of Rods

This latter is usually done in a manner similar to ordinary drawings, by pencilling the. annual rings in wood, i.i a conventional manner, and indicating brick or stone work by straight lines ruled at an angle of 450 on the parts that are given in section. Some setters-out prefer to use coloured pencils to indicate these materials red for brickwork, blue for stone, yellow for iron, etc. In any case the sectioning should be merely indicative, and not elaborate. The examples in...

Panelled Door Drawing Section Elevation

Plan Drawing Panelled Door

Horns arc left on for fixings at the head and in. iron plugs driven in the feet of the jambs for fixing iu the stone sill. Commence with the plan, drawing the stile,s of the door first to the given dimensions. Construct the frame around these, drawing the sight lines first, in. within the edges of the door. Divide up the panel equally next the vertical section at a convenient distance from the boundary of the elevation, the position of which can be seen in the plan. Hero, first draw in height...

Setting Out Rods Joinery

Setting Out Brick Arch

To make this quite clear the architrave moulding shown in section at top of Fig. 4, and in detail at Fig. 5. contains, in its finished state, eleven arrises, which require eleven lines on the rod to indicate them. Now all that is required to draw the moulds are four lines, the inner and outer edges of each piece. When the stuff is cut to this shape, the machinist will automatically produce all the others with correctness, by working the face edge against the spindle, therefore these...

How To Draw Perspective Projection

Perspective Drawing Projection

And touching the latter in point a, which becomes the centre of vision. Project this point to a line drawn parallel J distant 12 ft., to scale, locating the stationpoint thereon. From this point draw lines parallel with the sides of the frame a d and a-b, intersecting the H.L., which locate thereon the left-hand and right-hand vanishing points respectively. Draw the ground line G.L. 5 ft. below the ILL. and parallel therewith this locates the picture plane, upon which we can now produce the...

Elliptical Curve Cone

Cone Technical Drawing

By bricklayers for setting out templets for wliat they describe as elliptic arches. Draw the span or major axis A-A. Divide this into three equal parts, in points 1-2. With these points as centres, and 2-A as radius, describe circles intersecting in point 3. Draw lines trom the intersection through points 1 and 2 to cut the circles, and these give the radius for describing the central part of the curve, the two ends being formed by segments of the circles already drawn. It will be seen that...

Splayed Linings

French Window Technical Drawings

Join tliis point to c-e' and a templet for marking the brace is obtained. In Fig. 7 a development of the two adjacent sides of the post is made, chiefly to show the limits within which the mortise and tenon must be made also how to mark the housing. The bevels are the same as those found for the brace, but a.re applied in reverse direction. The distance of point a from c is found in the plan the heights of the points are projected from Fig. 5. Obtaining the Bevels of Splayed Linings An...

Lantern Lights

Old Timber Technical Drawings

At ja, 8a, qa, 10a, ua, 12a from these points draw horizontal projectors across the elevation in the example, only one-half is shown also drop projectors from the same points into the plan cutting the line A-B, as shown, in points 7,8, 9,10,11,12 this locates the position of the numbered points in the plan, and as the surface of each bay on a line parallel with its curb is straight across from hip to hip, it will be obvious that if the pointsi, 2, etc., are projected to the next hip in planes...

Bagatelle Straps

Anatomy Butt Hinge

Butt liinges are made of cast-steel, wrought-iron, cast and rolled brass and gun-metal. The Projecting Butt Fig. 2, is made much wider than the average, and the projecting portions are thickened to improve the appearance. They are used where there is some large moulding or other projecting part adjacent to the door which it is required to fold upon. The example shown is further strengthened by hardened steel bushes upon the working surface, the remaining portion of the hinge...

Oblique Projection

Projection Technical Diagram

Limitations, Types, Description of the Single Scale Method its essential defect, Half Scale Projection its dangers, suitability for school demonstrations. The Official Method. Theory of Oblique Projection illustrated. Examples cubes and prisms. A Trussed Partition details of constructs gt n. A New Method Diminished oblique projection, its advantages. An Oblique Scale how to construct it. A Ventilating Grating --details of joints. Method of constructing Pentagons. Projection of a pentagonal...

Info

Two methods of jointing stepped joints on the left and joggle joints on the right. All the joints radiate from a common centre, which is not the centre of the camber, but is placed according to taste. The skewback is horizontal, as there is no spreading thrust on this arch. The Round, Roman or Semicircular Arch, as it is variously termed, Fig. 4, shows two methods of treatment in stone arches. The stepped or rebated voussoirs on the right, with curved extrados, are. used when all the structure...

Inclination Of Letters

Among practical draughtsmen the waste of time, especially by novices, in obtaining anything like satisfactory results without such assistance, places this absolute freehand method outside practical consideration. A slavish copying, or entire reliance upon set squares and rulers is not here advocated, but judicious use of them as aids to the beginner is recommended. With letters of types No. 2 or No. 7, four guide lines may be used their object will be obvious upon inspection. Where capitals and...

Diminished Oblique Projection

Pentagon Building Technical Sketching

These the same length as the first then slide the set square forward until it reaches the ends of the vertical sides, and lines drawn therefrom will complete the hexagon. The oblique projectors are at an angle of 450. A Trussed Partition, such as is used to divide large and lofty buildings into apartments, is shown in oblique projection on page 104, and a portion of the head of an opening in a similar partition is shown below. The former is projected from the elevation at an angle of 30 the...

Shop Fittings

Front Elevation Design For Shop

The side lights are shown as fixed the small groove is a precaution to check any water that may gain access through the shrinkage of the rnullion. An outward-opening casement is shown in Fig 6. This frame has a metal water bar, in addition to the weathering and throating of the sill, to prevent snow drifting in. As French casements are used also as doorways it is advisable to have metal upon the sills to prevent wear of the parts. The transom in this case is made flush...

Constructing Pentagons

At B, erect a perpendicular, and make it equal to the given side bisect A-B, and from its centre c, with radius c-d, describe the arc d--c. Then from A and B as centres, and A-c as radius, describe arcs intersecting in E. From points A-B-E, with radius A-B, draw intersecting arcs. Join up the points of intersection and the pentagon will be constructed. To construct an Oblique Projection of a Pentagonal Prism, Fig. 5. Draw the ground line, and upon it construct one face of the prism,...

Datum Points

Setting Out Rods Joinery

In a separate drawing made upon the other side of the rod see Fig. 2 all the. vertical dimensions are shown on the height rod, Fig. 4. Thus with these three drawings the joiner can obtain all the dimensions of every straight piece in the job. The curved portion requiring special treatment will be referred to presently. No broken lines must be made in the length of a section. Obviously, if this is done, the rod is useless for its chief purpose, the actual laying down of the stuff upon it, and...

Compound Curves

Technical Drawing Helix

And a perpendicular dropped from i and 5. These points are also the centres of the quadrants containing the lower centres, anil the remainder of the construction is clearly indicated in the. figure. On the left the span is divided into four equal parts, and an equilateral triangle constructed upon the middle, two give the centres as shown. The Cyina Reversa or Wave Arch, Fig. 6, is produced upon a triangle of 6o , the span ct--h forming the base. Bisect the inclined sides a-c and b-c in points...

Isometric Scales

Which the contiguous sides of a cube assume to the vertical plane, when it is resting upon one of its corners and the diagonal line joining the corners is horizontal. This position is shown by the cube drawn in Fig. 3, page 83, and the lozenge representing the upper surface of the cube differs considerably from the square, which is its actual or orthographic projection, as shown in juxtaposition in dotted lines. This figure will explain why a true isometric drawing is smaller than the object it...

Squared Paper

Technical Drawings Spandrels

The central line should first be drawn, and then the various horizontals at suitable distances upon these the widths of the parts should be ticked off equally on each side, and the profile of the turned parts drawn m. The Screw Wrench Fig. n will be found a rather more difficult subject. The thread of the screw and the lines indicating the puriling or milling of the thumb-nut will test the student's accuracy in drawing parallel lines the latter should be drawn closer...

Theory Of Isometric Projection

Isometric Projection Construction Detail

With wbirh wc can read off dimensions in the same manner that dimensions are read upon an ordinary scale in orthographic. drawings. The above is Parish's method, but the same results maybe obtained in a simpler manner, as shown in Fig. 2. Here two lines are drawn upon the base line A-D, having angles of 450 and 30 respectively between them. The true scale is plotted upon the 45 angle line A-B, and the divisions projected as before upon the 30 line A-C, which becomes the reduced or isometric...

Workshop Drawings

Difference between Working and Workshop Drawings. Methods of preparing Workshop Drawings for Various Trades. Joiners' Rods difference between setting-out material and setting-out rods. Purposes of a Rod -what it should contain, and what it should not. Standard Widths of Rods. How to indicate Sections, Broken Sections, Dimension lines. Method of dealing with Long Rods. Where to start Setting-out. Datum Points. Setting-out a Venetian Window- -details of procedure. A Pair of Circular headed Doors...

How To Hang A Ledge And Brace Door

Framed Ledged And Braced Door Drawing

The collar beam will, unless the roof settles or spreads, be in compression bat, as the latter contingency may possibly occur, it will be better to provide for its becoming a tie beam by tenoning it to the principal rafters and securing these with inns or iron straps. Not much difficulty will be experienced in making this drawing. Set off the walls to the given span, bisect the span and erect a centre line. Draw the corbels resting on the springing line, and with a radius of 19 ft. describe the...

Coverings Of Domes

Chain Lines Drafting

The number of sides to the plan, as square, pentagonal, hexagonal, octagonal, etc., domes. There are also sub-varieties due to differences in the elevation or vertical sections, such as ogee domes, gothic. or pointed domes, segmental, etc. The construction of the dome, depending so greatly upon its size and circumstances of location, can only be referred to incidentally, the subject of this section being the method of obtaining the true shapeof the coverings, which is common to all. A dome may...

Practical Geometry

How Detail Compound Angle

Simple Angles. Com pound Angles rotation of inclined plane. Cuts for Purlins against Hips. Oblique Cuts in Angle Braces -various positions of brace, development oi inclined surfaces. Bevels in Splayed Liaittgg- setting out the soffit. Properties oi and methods of drawing Ellipses definition of ellipse and terms connected with 'arnc. Sections of Cylinders. Describing Ellipse by intersecting lines, ditto by T rammflling. To find the Foci, Normal and Tangent of...

Freehand Drawing Or Sketching

Technical Drawing Curved Line

Definition of Freehand its uses to the artisan and draughtsman. IIow to draw Curves. Manipulation of the Pencil. Plotting Points. Examples copying a moulding, a cabinet screw driver, cylinders. A Stone Baluster. A Screw Wrench. Use ot Squared Paper enlarging and diminishing drawings. Scctional Tracing Paper -how to use it. Stone Carving for a Window Head. Various Hinges - description of their uses and sizes butt, back flap, table and desk hinges, trestle, parliament, pew, counter flap, hook and...

Freehand

The Cabinet Screwdriver, Figs. 7 and 8, will afford excellent practice In balancing that is, making the opposite parts symmetrical or alike on each side of a centre line. Tliis line should first be drawn, then horizontals at various points of chief departure in the curves, and dimension points marked upon them. These will form the main guide points, and others can be placed between, until sufficient are obtained to complete the curves. The ends of the ferrule are curved, to convey the...

Wreathed Handrail

Make the straight line a-c equal in length to the circumference of the helix m plan draw a -b porpendicuhir and equal in length to the given rise a-A, Fig. 2 join b -c, then b -c is the true inclination of the helix. A wreathed handrail to a circular stair is an example of a helical curve, and in Fig. 5 a projection of one is given. To drawthe Projection of a Wreathed Handrail . Let Fig. 4 be the plan of the rail and the radiating lines may be considered the...

Windows

Technical Drawing Window Frame

Larged details of the breast.summer carrying the floor across the bay window are given in Fig. 4. This is composed of three 9 in.X3 in. deals bolted together and stub mortised to receive the tusk tenons on the joists as shown. The transverse sections, Figs. 2 and 3, are projected from the plan on the given section lines. Windows. A cased sash frame with 2 in. double-hung ovolo moulded sashes is shown on page 66, with enlarged details on page 68. Two methods of construction are given on page 66...

Field Gate

Technical Drawing Roofs

It may be pointed out that the two sections, Figs. 3 and 5, if drawn full size, would constitute a rod or working drawing, all that would be necessary for a joiner to set-out the cupboard by. It must also be explained that although for convenience of reference the examples are to some extent arranged in order of trades they are not constructively grouped, as in the author's works on Practical Carpentry and Joinery. Here they are placed in accord with their...

Theory Of Oblique Projection

Mechanical Drawing Projector

Drawn in the example, a small clip or button is shown piotoriallv in space. The plane upon which it is to be projected, represented bv the rectangle 1-2-3-4, stands vertically behind, and parallel with, the object projectors are taken from each corner of the face of fhe object, at an angle of 45 with the horizontal line 1-4, until they meet the plane of projection. These points of impingement are joined by straight lines which are parallel with the edges they represent on the object, thus an...

Souinch Arch

How Draw Tudor Arch

Produced across the face of the arch give the leading bed joint, and the point of junction of the respective arcs. The bed joints in each section are made to radiate from the centre from which that section is described. The Horseshoe or Moorish Arch, Fig. i6, is generally associated with Saracenic or Arabic architecture elsewhere it is used as an ornamental rather than a constructional feature. Alternative treatments are shown, the principal characteristic being the earning of the curve around...

Roof Types

Pitche Roof Tie Details

The Couple Close Roof Fig. 2, has the feet of the rafters tied together by nailing the ceiling joists to them, which strengthens the roof considerably, thus enabling it to be used for wider spans than the previous form. The Collar Beam. Roof, Fig. 3. shows the fie or collar placed higher up in the roof, to increase the space in the room below. When this type of roof is used it is necessary to have heavier common rafters than in the preceding types. The Collar Bolt and Tie Roof illustrated in...