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Two-point perspective employs the same principles as one-point spective. The first object you draw will help you determine the perspective but with an additional vanishing point. Two-point relative sizes of any other objects in the composition. perspective can give a scene more depth than one-point per-

Vanishing point

Notice the man and the dog also have invisible parallel lines that need to be drawn through just like those of the boxes

Extend the parallel lines toward the two vanishing points

Vanishing point

Extend the parallel lines toward the two vanishing points

Vanishing point

Horizon

Vanishing point

Horizon

Dog's Eye Level, Two-Point Perspective

Here, the horizon line is at the dog's eye level. The vantage point is also at the same level as the dog's eye. Just as in one-point perspective, all lines above the dog's eye level angle down toward the vanishing points and all lines below the dog's eye level angle up toward the vanishing points.

Vanishing point

Extend the parallel lines toward the two vanishing points

Vanishing point

Extend the parallel lines toward the two vanishing points

Horizon

Vanishing point

Horizon

Man's Eye Level, Two-Point Perspective

Here, the horizon line is at the man's eye level; the vantage point is at the same level. All parallel lines above him angle down toward the vanishing points and all parallel lines below him angle up toward the vanishing points.

Horizon

Vanishing point

Vanishing point

Vanishing point

Overhead View, Two-Point Perspective

Here, the horizon is above the man and his dog, creating the impression that the viewer is looking down on them. The vantage point is above the man and the dog. In this case all of the parallel lines are angled up toward the vanishing points.

Vanishing point

Vanishing point

Vanishing point

Vanishing point

Two-Point Perspective,

Two Vanishing Points

These books are neatly stacked and lined up, so they share the same two vanishing points.

Two-Point Perspective,

Two Vanishing Points

These books are neatly stacked and lined up, so they share the same two vanishing points.

Vanishing points

Vanishing points

Vanishing points

Vanishing points

Two-Point Perspective, Many Vanishing Points A simple stack of books may have many vanishing points. Each of these books has its own set of two vanishing points

Linear perspective may include many vanishing points, as shown by the staggered books on page 37. When you add more vanishing points to a scene, you also add drama and complexity to your composition. If you take a vanishing point and move it high above or far below the horizon, you will create three-point perspective.

Vanishing point

Vanishing point

Vanishing point

Three-Point Perspective, Looking Down

This drawing of tall buildings employs three vanishing points and a high horizon. The resulting perspective is extremely dramatic.

Vanishing point

Vanishing point

Three-Point Perspective, Looking Up

Reversing the placement of the vanishing points and horizon line gives the viewer the impression of looking up at the buildings. Once again, every line is directed to one of the three vanishing points.

Vanishing point

Vanishing point

Vanishing point

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Applying the principles of perspective to all objects in a scene is important, even though horizons and vanishing points aren't always noticeable. They may be hidden behind other elements in the composition, but understanding where they are will help to keep your perspective accurate. If necessary, sketch the horizon and vanishing points lightly with a pencil to make sure perspective is applied to eveything in your drawing. Once you've established perspective, erase your guidelines and finish the drawing.

Vanishing point

Vanishing point

Hide and Seek

Even when the horizon or vanishing points in a scene are hidden, they still affect your drawing. You can easily find your horizon line and vanishing points. If you draw lines from all the parallel elements in this room, they will converge at the vanishing point. Now that you have discovered the vanishing point, you know the horizon line goes through that point in the scene.

Vanishing point

Vanishing point

Beyond the Horizon

Though the subject is not bound to a horizon, this scene still uses the principles of linear perspective.

Beyond the Horizon

Though the subject is not bound to a horizon, this scene still uses the principles of linear perspective.

The location of your vanishing points has an important effect on the vantage point of your drawing. The closer the vanishing points are to each other, the closer the object will appear to the viewer. The farther apart they are, the more distant the object will appear to the viewer.

Horizon

Horizon

Farther Vanishing Points, Farther Vantage Point

The vanishing points are farther apart, making the angles less extreme.

Farther Vanishing Points, Farther Vantage Point

The vanishing points are farther apart, making the angles less extreme.

Horizon

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With the vanishing points far apart, the box looks flat, almost without perspective. This will give the viewer the impression that the box is in the distance. Atmospheric perspective, also referred to as aerial perspective, uses definition and values to create the illusion of depth and distance. Atmospheric perspective relies on the idea that the closer something is to the viewer, the more it is defined and the more its values contrast. For instance, trees close to the viewer will show more detail and more color variation than trees farther away. Using Values to Create Depth In this grouping of trees, the value of the closest trees contrasts more against the background than those farther away. Linear Perspective Only Depth in this scene relies on the size differences established by linear perspective. The larger windmill seems closer to the viewer than the smaller ones. Atmospheric perspective is not used to show the distance between the windmills. ## Atmospheric Perspective OnlyAll three windmills are the same size, so no linear perspective is used. The only difference is the intensity of their values, which makes them look like they are progressively more distant, going from left to right. Combined Perspectives By combining linear and atmospheric perspectives, the depth of the scene is expressed through size and value contrast. Combined Perspectives By combining linear and atmospheric perspectives, the depth of the scene is expressed through size and value contrast. |

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