Add Reflections and Final Darks and Details Add reflections with back-and-forth horizontal strokes using a 4H pencil. Lightly indicate distant water and trees near the horizon. Add some darks to the boats with a 4B pencil and darken much of the foreground boat with the 4H pencil. Add some simple seagull shapes with a 4H pencil. Sign and date your artwork.
Acid-free paper. Paper that has not been processed with acid. Acid can cause paper to yellow over time.
Angle ruler. A small ruler that can fold in the middle to measure angles.
Asymmetrical. That which is not symmetrical. In reference to art, something may be balanced without being symmetrical.
Atmospheric perspective. The illusion of depth achieved through contrasts in value and definition.
Baseline. A line that establishes the placement of a subject and helps you work out the proportions of a drawing.
Blind contour sketch. A sketch or drawing done with a single line without looking at the paper.
Composition. The arrangement of elements in an artwork.
Contour sketch (or Continuous line sketch). A sketch or drawing that is done with a single line.
Contrast. Differences between the values in a composition.
Craft knife. A small knife with a sharp, pointed, replaceable blade.
Crop. Determine the area of a scene to be included within an artwork.
Dividers. A handheld compasslike device for measuring and proportioning.
Drawing. A finished representation of a subject.
Drawing board. A smooth, sturdy board placed underneath the paper for sketching or drawing.
Drawing paper. Heavyweight paper, commonly 80 lb. to 90 lb. (170gsm to 190gsm), used for drawing.
Ellipse. The shape a circle takes on when viewed at an angle. Used to show perspective.
Erasing shield. A thin metal shield used to mask areas that are not to be erased.
Eye level. See Vantage point.
Fixative. A spray applied to pencil drawings to prevent the artwork from smudging.
Focal point. The area or part of a painting to which the composition leads the eye, also referred to as the center of interest.
Form shadow. A shadow on an object that gives the form more dimension.
Format. The overall shape of a composition.
Frisket. A sheet of paper used as a shield to create an even edge or a clean margin beside a set of pencil lines.
Gauge. To determine specific proportions of elements in a scene.
Graphite. A soft black substance used in the core of some pencils.
Highlight. An area of light on an object, usually placed in the direct path of the light.
Horizon line. The line where land or water meets the sky, in reference to linear perspective.
Kneaded eraser. A soft, pliable gray eraser.
Lead. The term mistakenly used for graphite in a pencil. Also the scale that rates the hardness or softness of the graphite.
Leading lines. A group of compositional elements used to form lines to direct the viewer's eye to centers of interest.
Light box. A device that shines light evenly through a translucent surface. This allows the viewer to see slides, transparencies or drawings laid on its surface.
Light source. The origin of the light shining on elements in a composition.
Linear perspective. Depth implied through line and the relative size of elements in a composition.
Mechanical pencil. A pencil consisting of a thin stick of graphite encased by a holder similar to a pen. Mechanical pencils need no sharpening.
Pad. A stack of sheets of paper attached at one side with glue or wire.
Paper weight. The thickness of a sheet of paper; common weights for sketch paper are 50 lb. to 70 lb. (105gsm to 150gsm). For drawing paper common weights are 80lb to 90lb (170gsm to 190gsm).
Pencil extender. A device that attaches to the end of a pencil that has been shortened by use, used to extend the pencil's life.
Pencil sharpener. A mechanical device used to sharpen the ends of pencils.
Perspective. A technique that gives the illusion of depth to a flat picture.
Proportional dividers. Dividers that have points at both ends and are used for proportionally enlarging or reducing a hand-drawn image.
Reference materials. Pictures from various sources, used to examine a subject more closely, or from different angles, or under different conditions.
Reflected light. Light reflected off one surface onto another.
Sandpaper pad. A very small pad of sandpaper sheets attached to a handle; used for sharpening pencil tips.
Sewing gauge. A hand-held device with a moveable marking guide that can be used for measuring proportions.
Sketch. A drawing in rough, unfinished form.
Sketch paper. Lightweight paper, commonly 50 lb. to 70 lb. (105gsm to 150gsm), used for sketching.
Straightedge. A metal ruler or similar tool used for drawing straight lines.
Structural sketch. The primary line work that the values (lights and darks) and line work of a drawing are built upon.
Symmetrical. Balanced composition, with equal elements placed as if reflected in a mirror.
Tangent. The unfortuante meeting of two similar compositional elements. Tangents usually detract from a composition because they can confuse the viewer.
Thumbnail sketch. A small, quick sketch.
Tooth. The roughness of a paper surface.
Tracing paper. Thin, translucent paper used in the process of drawing.
Triangle. A thin, transparent triangle formed out of plastic used for drawing lines.
T-square. A straightedge with a perpendicular attachment that allows the tool to glide along the side edge of a drawing board or paper pad.
Two-point perspective. A type of linear perspective with two vanishing points.
Values. Degrees of light and darkness in a sketch or drawing.
Value scale. A scale showing a range of values.
Value sketch. A thumbnail sketch used to plan the lights and darks of a drawing.
Vanishing point. A point usually on the horizon line, at which parallel lines seem to converge.
Vantage point. The point from which the viewer observes a scene.
Viewfinder. A device used to crop a scene.
White vinyl eraser. A white, squarish eraser.
Aerial perspective. See Atmospheric perspective Airplanes, 62-63 Angle ruler, 7, 12, 30 Angles, 89
gauging, 30 Arches, 44-45
Asymmetrical composition, 87 Atmospheric perspective, 41.
See also Perspective Automobiles, 66-67
Basic shapes, 24, 27 Black-and-white sketch, 14, 20-21,
24-25 Boats, 68-69, 120-23 Branches, 56-57 Brick, 58-59
Elements arranging, 87 number of, 88 Ellipses, 42-43 Enlarging, 13 Erasers, 7, 11-12 Erasing shield, 11-12, 18 Evergreen trees, 57
Faces, 82-85, 105-109
Figure drawing, 78-81, 110-15
Focal point, 90
Form shadow, 52
See Contour sketch Contour drawing, 25 Contour sketch,14, 22-23 Contrast, 49, 100-04 Cows, 76 Craft knife, 9, 12 Cropping, 89
Depth, 35, 41. See also Perspective
Dividers, 12-13, 28-29
Dog, side view, 74-75
Drawing board, 7, 10
Drawing pad, 7
Drawing paper, 10, 12
Drawing tools, 8-13
Garden scene, 96-97 Graphite pencils, 8 Grass, 55 Grid, 87
Harbor scene, 120-123 Hardness, of pencils, 8 Highlight, 52 Horizon line, 32-38, 53
Kneaded eraser, 11-12
Landscape, 116-119 Leading lines, 90 Leaves, 56
Light box, 12-13, 24-25 Light source, 52-53, 55 Linear perspective, 12, 41-43.
See also Perspective Lines horizontal, 14 straight, 29 types of, 15
Masking tape, 10 Materials, 7-13 Mechanical pencils, 8 Mirror, 12-13, 106 Mood, 33
Obscurity, and depth, 35
Paper, 10, 12 Parallel elements, 35 Pencil box, 7 Pencil extender, 7-8, 12 Pencil sharpener, 7, 9, 12 Pencils, 7-8, 12 as gauge, 28 holding, 15 sharpening, 9 Perspective, 32-33, 35, 46 atmospheric, 41 one-point, 34-35 two-point, 36-37 three-point, 38-39 Portraits. See Faces Proportional dividers, 12-13, 28-29 Proportions, 13, 24, 27-28, 78-80
Raccoons, 98-99 Reducing, 13 Reference material, 31 Reflected light, 52 Reflections, 46-47 Rocks, 60-61 Ruler, 29
Sandpaper pad, 9, 12
Sewing gauge, 12-13, 29
Size, relative, 35
Sketch paper, 10
Slip sheet, 20
Smudges, avoiding, 20
Spray fixative, 13
Still lifes, 31, 92-93
Straight edge, 12, 29
Structural line sketch, 13-14, 16-17,
24-25, 27 Sunlight, 55 Swan, 77
Symmetrical composition, 87
Tangents, 90 Technical drawing, 34 Textures, 58-59, 94-95, 98-99 Thumbnail sketch, 87 Tooth, of paper, 10 Tracing paper, 10, 31 Trains, 64-65 Trees, 56-57 Triangle, 12, 34 T-square, 12, 34
Value drawing, 25 Value scale, 50 Value sketch, 14, 18-19, 24 Values, 27, 41, 48-53 Vanishing point, 32, 34-40, 53 Vantage point, 32-38 Viewfinder, 89
White vinyl eraser, 11-12 Wolf, 100-04 Wood, 58-59 Woodless pencils, 8
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