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Holding the Pencil (p. 15) Using Basic Shapes (p. 27)

Gauging Poportions (p. 28) Creating Values (p. 51)

Must-Have Materials

Graphite pencil Drawing board Drawing paper Kneaded eraser

Establish the General Proportions

Start with lines to indicate the placement and proportions. Because the weight of the body in this example rests over the man's right leg, include a vertical line that goes from the head to the right foot.

Add top, bottom and middle horizontal lines. Then sketch a line halfway between the middle and top lines, then sketch another line between the last line drawn and the top line.

Sketch the Head and Legs Most adults are about 7% heads high. The distance from the top line to the next lower line is one-eighth of the overall height. Make a line slightly lower and sketch an egg shape for the head, which should work out to about 7% units of the overall height. You can use dividers if you want to check your proportions. Sketch in the legs, placing the top of the inseam just below the middle line.

Add the Torso and Waist Sketch the basic shape of the torso along with the waistline.

Add the Arms, Hands and Feet Add the arms, with the wrists falling at about the middle line and the fingertips reaching mid-thigh. Sketch a line for the placement of the eyes. Sketch in the feet along the baseline.

Sketch in Details

Sketch in the details, including facial features and clothes.

Sketch in Details

Sketch in the details, including facial features and clothes.

Shade the Drawing Add shading and details.

To draw faces correctly, it's important to understand their basic structures and proportions. One way to do this is to use the width of the eye as a unit of measurement. These examples show generic proportions of an adult male of European origin. The features of individuals vary according to age, gender and ethnicity, if only in subtle ways.

Sketch the Basic Shape

Start with the basic shape egg-shape of the head. It should be five eye-widths wide by seven eye-widths high.

Add the Eye Line

Sketch a horizontal line in the middle of the face to place the

General Face Proportions

Eyes are halfway from crown to chin

Width Is about 5 eye-widths eyes. Sketch a vertical line to establish the center of the face.

Width Is about 5 eye-widths

Height Is about 7 eye-widths

Add Eye Shapes and Nose and Mouth Lines

Sketch the eyes, leaving one eye-width between them. Add a line for the nose a little less than half the distance from the eyes to the chin. Sketch a line for the mouth a little less than halfway between the line for the nose and chin.

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