Spine Product

Dorn Spinal Therapy

Dorn Spinal Therapy has been in uses in the past 40 years. The credit of this method goes to Dieter Dorn, who has made a significant impact in the medical field. DORN- Method has been used on various patients where results could get witnessed instants. Due to the impact, this method has brought in the country. It has been declared the standard practice in treating Pelvical Disorders, Spinal, and Back pain. Dieter Dorn first used this method on his family, which was a sign of confidence in a method, which later gained much attention from different people in the country and also globally. Every day Dorn was able to offer treatment to 15- 20 patients in a day. His services were purely free which attracted attention both in the local and also global. The primary treatment that DORN-Method which could be treated using this method include spine healing therapy, misalignments of the spine, resolving pelvis and joints, and also solving out significant problems which could get attributed to vertebrae.

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Insan Anatomisi Karakalem

Animal Simplified Drawing

Plate 7 shows the action of the head on its pivot point at the top of the spine and at the base of the skull. We must remember that this pivot is well inside the roundness of the neck and deep under the skull. It does not have a hinge action but a rotating action from a. point a little back ot the rent - line of the neck. So when the head is tipped backward the neck is squeezed and bulges somewhat, forming a crease at the base of the skull. When the head is tipped forward, the larynx or Adam's apple is dropped down and hides itself within the neck. In the lateral movements there is a strong play of the long muscles which attach to the skull behind the ears and down in front to the breastl one between the collarbones. At the back arc the two strong muscles which attach to the base of the skull to pull the head backward. To get a head to sit properly on the neck requires some

The Contour of the Buttocks Ho o Draw the Buttocks

How Draw Female Buttocks

The secret to drawing an attractive buttocks is in thinking of the crevice as an extension of the spine. The secret to drawing an attractive buttocks is in thinking of the crevice as an extension of the spine. 3. Extend the line of the spine along the curve of the buttocks. 3. Extend the line of the spine along the curve of the buttocks. The crevice follows along the line of the spine, and represents the center of the lower body. The crevice follows along the line of the spine, and represents the center of the lower body.

Architecture And The Nude

Fairly simple idea of what is happening to the spinal column, just how much lateral deviation it is undergoing, just how much rotation, just how much back-and-forward flexion. It is from such a clearly conceived starting-point that we must build up the arrangement of the other parts of the trunk. If we are drawing a back view and can see the backbone line, so much the better if not, we must imagine it, hold it ever in our mind's eye, and adapt all other rhythms to its primal Fig. 63. Diagram of rotation of torso round spinal column. Fig. 63. Diagram of rotation of torso round spinal column.

Four point perspective

Body Perspective Drawing

Pay attention to the location of the natural center on the f orms you understand. For instance the nose on the face, the center of the ribcage, or the belly button on the stomach. You obviously have the spine for the back. On the legs you find the model's knees and the top of the foot. For the arms you can use the center of the biceps or deltoid to explain each of those dif ferent planes.

Section Studies of Structure

Anatomy Chart Black And White

These are one-minute gesture studies which follow the directions for Exercise 2 with one new element. As you draw, still attempting to draw the whole figure, include some feeling of the movement of the bones within the figure. Record loosely the gesture of the spine, the general basket shape of the ribs, the basin of the pelvis, the ball of the skull, the wedge of the foot. Let the bones and the figure move as one thing. The shoulder girdle is formed by the collarbone (clavicle) in front, and the shoulder blade (scapula) in the back with its attachment, the spine of the scapula, which is almost a separate bone. These bones should always be thought of together because they move together. The collarbone is very simple. It joins the breastbone (sternum) at the pit of the neck and extends across to the arm. The shoulder blade is shaped roughly like a triangle, slightly cupped over the ribs, with the inner side parallel to the spine. The outer side has a socket into which the armbone fits....

The Center of Gravity

A rational method of verifying the equilibrium of a nude's pose is to find its center of gravity. The center of gravity is usually found in the abdominal area for standing figures, or at the base of the spine for a nude viewed from the back. To check the stability of the figure, all one has to do is imagine that center of gravity and extend an imaginary vertical line from it if the line divides the area supporting one or both of the feet, the figure has a good equilibrium otherwise, the representation is imbalanced and the nude is unable to support itself on its feet.

No Forward Articouwon Here

Charcoal Drawing The Human Posture

Upright posture is maintained by the sacrospinalis muscles in the back, which bind the spine tightly to the pelvis and hold the torso erect, and by the gluteus maximus muscle of the buttock, which holds the trunk upright on the legs. As we noted in Chapter 2, strong ligaments at the front of the groin prevent backward articulation of the thigh, while others at the back of the knee prevent forward articulation of the knee joint. In a normal standing posture, the hip is slightly forward of the body's centre of gravity and the knee is slightly behind. These two joints are locked in opposition to each other, providing a perfect supporting structure. Individuals stand in diverse ways as a consequence of subtle differences in body-structure, limb-length and spinal flexibility. Age, too, has an influence on normal body stance, as may clothing. Physical tiredness will show, and so to some extent will the person's mental and emotional state. The way individuals stand can say a very great deal...

Figure Drawing Without A Model

Bone Shape Activity Skeleton

The two drawings at left both represent a simplified human skeleton. The first shows the main bone shapes, the second a matchstick figure with head, rib-cage and pelvis indicated as eggshapes. As a first step towards drawing figures from memory, doodling this elementary structure in a wide variety of action poses is an excellent way to gain familiarity with the mechanics of figure movement. Once you are confident of the position and curvature of the spine, and how and where the limbs go, you will always know that your work is at least structurally sound. Remember that the spine is flexible, and that in a normal upright posture it describes a shallow double-S curve. Remember, too, that the legs account for half the total height of the figure. Try the static, standing poses first, then go on to draw more and more active poses in which the spine is bent or twisted in various ways and the limbs are flung wide. Draw a small naked figure - as small as you like, maybe even only a couple of...

Chapter Posing with props

Sacrifice Engineer

By experience I know that a poserfigure doesn't have a flexible spine like a human being. There are (until now) only 2 joints available in a poserfigure to twist the upper body. I should not screw the left collar too much, else the pose would look not so well (another experience). I don't care much about the hips (well, I should more at my age - but not for my poserfigure) but anyhow, that's the thing that has to be moved first. but anyhow that's the thing that have to be moved first.

Find the Gesture of the Pose Quick Sketches

Human Body Positions Drawing

To draw the human figure convincingly, you must be aware of the gesture, or the movement, or position of the body. This gesture gives movement and direction to your drawing, which makes it appear more lifelike. Observing the gesture carefully helps you to understand the placement of the spine, which serves as the center of movement for the whole body. You can also think of this in the opposite way Observe the placement of the spine, and you will understand the gesture. This quick sketch concisely conveys the gesture of the pose. The dynamism of the body lies in a forward movement caused by the inward arch of the spine. Notice how the artist is trying to find the correct line to describe the arch of the back. Do not be afraid to draw many lines in order to record the information precisely. The thick line representing the curve of the stomach as it extends outward reiterates the arch in the back. The curve of the stomach is accentuated, not only by the lovely use of line to describe its...

Structure And Proportion

How Draw Manga Bodies And Anatomy

In old age the flexor muscles tend to shorten. This causes the body, when it is in a normal standing posture, to have a general bowed' shape, with rounding of the shoulders as the upper back (the dorsal spine) increases its natural curvature and the neck thrusts the face forward. Even when the body is relaxed, the arms and legs remain slightly flexed.

Anatomybased skeletal models

Most human figure models use a simplified articulated skeleton consisting of relatively few jointed segments. Magnenat-Thalmann and Thalmann 11 challenged researchers to develop more accurate articulated models for the skeletal support of human figures. They observe that complex motion control algorithms which have been developed for primitive articulated models better suit robotlike characters than they do human figures. To address this issue, researchers have revisited the skeletal layer of human figure models to solve some specific problems. In Jack 1 , the shoulder is modeled accurately as a clavicle and shoulder pair. The spatial relationship between the clavicle and shoulder is adjusted based on the position and orientation of the upper arm. In another treatment of the shoulder-arm complex, the Thalmanns 11 use a moving joint based on lengthening the clavicle which produces good results. Monheit and Badler 14 developed a kinematic model of the human spine that improves on the...

Multiplicity Of Motive

The place of the navel was carefully noted as giving by implication the exact position of the abdominal surface, and the V-shaped form employed in ' calligraphing ' it is by no means fortuitous. It was dictated by the desire to limit, by the right-hand branch of the V, the lower abdominal mass, and by the left-hand branch the forms above the navel. It is easy to notice the suggestion of a dragging rhythm between the right-hand branch of this little V and the iliac spine the double curve of this eighth of an inch of line is prompted by this observation. The upper part of the V curves upward to show the drag from the spine, and the lower downward to suggest the fall away of the lower side of the abdomen in the present position, and to determine its rounded form.

OTechnique And Decoration

It will be noticed that at the pelvic spine I did not take my pencil off the paper the line comes into the modelling, makes a sharp-pointed loop, returns on itself during two-thirds of its length, again makes an acute angle, and continues to express the fall away of the flexible forms of the external oblique. The indication of the iliac spine is really a calligraphic note made about it. Of course the top profile was drawn as I describe it, from right to left. The reason for this is the order of representation chosen, an order partly based on the appearance from the particular point of view, and partly based on the relative importance of the real constructional facts. As usual, the shape and position in space of the pelvic mass is the most important thing but in the present circumstances it is thrown back to what we may call the third perspective plane, the first being taken up by the feet and legs, the second by the thighs, the third by the pelvic...

What We Have to Look Forward To

As the body ages, the flexor muscles shorten and tend to pull the body into a stoop. In addition, the spine curves more, the shoulders round or stoop, and the neck thrusts the head forward. At the same time, muscle tone changes, and the muscles become thinner and shrink. Joints, meanwhile, seem larger relatively. Skin and soft tissue gets softer and saggy at the stomach, breasts, elbows, and chin. More ice cream, anyone

Muscle Is Good

The torso is all the bone and muscles forming the middle of the body, from the shoulders to the pelvis. Flexing and stretching is possible because of the flexibility of the spine, which, as the middle-aged among us know, varies tremendously from person to person. The combinations of twists and turns are amazing, really. The spine even has a double curve when in a standing position.

Poses with props

Of course, this pole is the central element in that pose. As always, the pose will be started from the hip. Problems occur with the arms - I have to twist them a lot. A problem like the high positioning of the hip (remember the swordpose) won't show up. I can simply place the legs on the ground with an easy ytrans movement of the hip. A problem could be the spine - Vicky 3 would be better for such a pose.

Simplifying the body

Gesture Drawing Benting Human Figure

Pelvis is closer to the shape of a real one. And while a normal wooden manikin has its shoulders held to the torso with bits of wire, ours has alien anti-gravity technology. This allows them to move around like a real shoulder can. In the side view you can see how the chest and the pelvis are tilted a little bit to follow the natural curve of the spine.

Vertebral column

Subcutaneously The Base The Tail

The spine, or vertebral column, is made up of numerous individual vertebrae, and extends from the back of the skull to the tip of the tail. It is most flexible at the neck, made up of the cervical vertebrae, and somewhat less flexible in the region located between the rib cage and the pelvis, made up of the lumbar vertebrae. The thoracic vertebrae, located between the cervical and lumbar vertebrae, have the ribs attached to them. There is some movement possible in this region of the spine, but much less than in the cervical and lumbar regions. The sacrum, located between the thoracic vertebrae and the tail, is actually several vertebrae fused together. It is rigidly locked in place between the two sides of the pelvis. The tail, when present, is extremely flexible. It is made up of the coccygeal, or caudal vertebrae. Mammals commonly have seven cervical vertebrae, twelve to eighteen thoracic vertebrae, and five to seven lumbar vertebrae. At its simplest, a typical vertebra can be...

Rib cage

The rib cage, which forms the chest wall, is an important volume. Shaped somewhat like a cone, it is created by the individual ribs connecting to the spine above and to the sternum below. Its gets smaller toward the front and, in four legged animals, is flattened side-to-side. The back end is wide and open. The rib cage is wider at the top (near the spine) and narrower below (at the sternum). The scapula, or shoulder blade, is a large, flat, roughly triangular bone which lies on the side of the rib cage its upper end leans inward toward the spine in four-legged animals. The scapula of the horse is elongate that of the cat, rounded. A bony ridge running its length on its flat surface, called the spine, has a bony expansion, the tubercle, near its center. The trapezius muscle attaches to this tubercle. The lower end of the spine of the scapula expands into the acromion well developed in carnivores and especially in primates, subtle in most hoofed animals, and virtually absent in horses....


Relating to bone, a spine is a projecting point or a raised ridge (the entire vertebral column is also called the spine) a process is a projection of varying shape, a protuberance is a bony projection or bump, and a tuberosity is an enlargement. A crest is a high ridge. A long bone, such as the humerus, femur, or tibia, consists of a shaft with an expansion at either end. The rounded, regularly shaped expansion is called a head. Large prominences at the ends of bones, which articulate with other bones and are covered by a thin layer of articular cartilage, are called condyles. Small, nonarticulating prominences found on the condyles are called epicondyles. The skeleton is divided into an axial (longitudinal) skeleton and a limb (appendicular) skeleton. The axial skeleton consists of the skull, the rib cage, and the spine (vertebral column). The limb skeleton consists of the four limbs. In primates, such as humans, apes, and monkeys, they are called the arms and the legs. In...

The Back

Easy Draw Caricatures Body

The shoulder blades curve away from the spine. Each shoulder blade (scapula) has a narrow bone that travels across it called the spine of the scapula. The spine of the scapula protrudes deeply into the shoulder muscle, ending in a sort of indented knob. When you look at the shoulder blade in someone's back, what you're really seeing is the spine of the scapula, not the actual top of the shoulder blade itself. The illustration below shows the actual shoulder blade bone. Notice the basic shape created in the area between the spine of the scapula and the neck. By sketching this form as a guide, you'll be abie to more accurately draw the back. Notice the basic shape created in the area between the spine of the scapula and the neck. By sketching this form as a guide, you'll be abie to more accurately draw the back. Notice the spine of the scapula in the finished drawing. Notice the spine of the scapula in the finished drawing.

The Female Torso

Female Body Line Drawing

A good exercise is to find images of figures, seated or standing, nude or dressed, put a sheet of tracing paper over the images, and find the location of the spine and the line of the hips. A good exercise is to find images of figures, seated or standing, nude or dressed, put a sheet of tracing paper over the images, and find the location of the spine and the line of the hips.

Body Height

Sketch Human Figure Back Behind View

When a figure is pictured from the back, the first feature that we notice is the clear definition of the figures vertical axis.The line marking the vertical axis is accentuated by the backbone, by the ridge that the spine forms, by the separation of the buttocks, and by the line describing the inside of the legs. The line that marks the spine should be drawn as the axis of symmetry this way, it will serve as a reference for placing the parts of the body on either half of the body. The curve that describes the spine, and the extension of this line down to the feet, is a guide for capturing the figure's gesture as viewed from the rear. The curve that describes the spine, and the extension of this line down to the feet, is a guide for capturing the figure's gesture as viewed from the rear.

Back V

Human Positions Drawing

If you analyze a frontal view of the torso you will find that this part of the body comprises the pectoral muscles, a set of thick, wide, pentagonal muscles set in pairs, which expand or contract when the arms are raised or lowered. Notice the distribution of volumes, the profile and expansion of the thorax, from the front and the back, and how the shoulders insert themselves into the thorax in different positions depending on the view.The neck gives the torso a great expressive quality, and its musculature implies the flexibility of the head, so it must always be shown breaking from the symmetry marked by the spine. The sketches below show how to begin a drawing of the male torso. Begin by establishing a vertical axis. Froni there, use synthetic forms to fit the rectangular form of the torso within this schema the curve of the torso depends on the position that the figure assumes. For a frontal view sketch the more prominent muscular textures, such as the pectoral muscles, the...

Hands paws hooves

Latest Human Figure Modern Art

The tail is an extension of the spine. When drawing bipedal characters, make sure the tail connects just below the sacrum, and that it flows naturally from how the spine is bent. In gesture sketches, the spine and tail are usually drawn as one long swooshy line. Figure 4.13. Tail spine line in gesture sketches Figure 4.13. Tail spine line in gesture sketches

Thigh And Leg Masses

In the trunk the case is the opposite the facts of the front follow as a corollary to those of the back. The joining up of the two systems, that of the back and that of the front, is elegantly effected by the forward-sloping forms of the external and internal obliques (and the transversalis) and by the special shapes of the gluteus medius and the tensor fasciae femoris, all of which gather round the forward-sloping iliac crest or haunch-bone. The accompanying sketch may aid in showing this, though for a full representation of the facts a clay model would really be necessary in order completely to trace the sequence of forms from back to front over the body. In short, it must be noticed how the forms in the region of the waist can be caressed round and forward and downward from the spinal column just above the sacral triangle over the obliques, and the iliac crest forward into the depression between the thigh and the stomach. This sweeping movement must...

Sitting Figure

It is of paramount importance, at this point, to understand the shifting of the weight from the feet to the buttocks, thighs, hands, elbows, back, the neck and head. Important, too, is the correct understanding of foreshortened limbs that assume other dian usual contours. In such poses limbs become props or braces rather than complete supports. The spine has a tendency to relax in a concave manner toward such bracing. When you are sitting on the floor, one of your arms usually bccomcs a bracc, and the spine relaxes toward the bracing shoulder. One shoulder is high and the other one drops the hips lean toward the brace the weight is carried on one side of the buttocks, the side of the supporting arm. When you are sitting in a chair, your spine may lose its S-shape and become a C. The thighs and buttocks take the weight. Both flatten a good deal, particularly a woman's thighs. The position of the head over the body should be carcfully placcd, sincc it has much to do with what the pose...


Torso Side

Between these the central mass contains the waist vertebrae, and is very changeable. Practically all of the movement of flexion and extension for the whole spine occurs here, and much of the side-bending. Latissimus dorsi From spine, sixth dorsal, to sacrum and iliac crest passes inside of humerus to fasten to front side near head. Action Draws arm backward and inward. I. bones (1) Scapula, (shoulder blade), a large flat bone triangular in shape. It articulates with the collar bone at the summit of the shoulder. (2) The serratus magnus muscles follow the ribs. See Muscles No. II. (3) The thorax or rib cage is the cavity enclosed by the ribs, attached to the spine behind and to the sternum in front. The upper ribs are quite short and grow longer till they reach the seventh rib, which is the longest and the last to fasten to the breastbone. The upper seven ribs are named the true ribs.

Human Body Cartoon

2 Place a small circle at the end of each shoulder. These will approximate the shape of the deltoid muscles. Next, lightly draw the spine as a straight line running down from the ribs. At the end, sketch in the hip area as a circle. Lightly draw the spine for reference. See how it curves around 'the back of the rib cage, turns in at the waist and makes a final curve around the back of the hips While we're at it, sketch in the hip area as a circle. If you're making a female body, wider hips are better. Draw a slanted oval rib cage below the neck. Then add a spine that curves in and out again. Draw a circle for the hips at the bottom of the spine, and a smaller circle at the shoulder to start the

Backbone Rotation

Continuing our examination of the back, we note how the quite unindicated curve of the backbone makes itself felt, suggested how Mainly by the relation established between the upper sweep of the left arm profile and the precise placing of the right-hand waist curve. Isolate the two lines on a separate piece of paper and you will see how much of the suggestion lies in them. Then comes the slight recession of the sacral triangle, so frugally marked by the solitary accent. The advancing and receding spinal curve finishes in the prominence of the gluteal mass, where we come, for the first time, on direct indication of the backbone's existence. Now this excellently felt but unexecuted rhythm is no result of chance or of accident. Rembrandt felt it intensely while drawing everything that he did was built round it, depended on it, hence suggested it. The back view of the body and not the front is the important one to the draughtsman. Truth of construction and pose depends on understanding of...

Drawing Male Legs

Leg Action Legs

The ribs curve slightly down from either side of the spine, and the muscles essentially follow this downward swoop, especially in the lower back, The hips are angled diagonally from the spine, accentuating the slim waist. The right leg bends while the left leg is straight to support the body. There are no extreme edges or angles instead, the whole body curves gracefully from one area to the next.


Anatomical Movement Photos

In a human figure there are the masses of head, chest and pelvis. Each of these has a certain height, breadth and thickness. Considered as blocks, these masses balance, tilt and twist, held together in their different movements by the spinal column. As they twist and turn, the spaces between them become long, short or spiral.

Examples D

Drawing Facial Expressions

The skin under the chin and on the front of the throat, with its associated flesh, sags. Two factors cause the tightening of this area the natural wearing down or loss of the teeth brings the jaws closer together, so that the chin juts forward more, and the increased forward curvature of the spine between the shoulderblades throws the head forward and down, so that the neck vertebrae have to adopt a greater compensating backward curve. These two factors cause a tightening of the skin under the chin.

And Hips

Sternum Drawings

I he cage and the pelvic bones are connected by a portion of the spine called the lumbar region. Muscular power acts on these masses as levers and allows the body to move forwards and backwards or turn. The pelvis can be compared to a wheel with only two spokes the hub is the hip joint and the spokes are the legs which swing back and forth as in walking or running. When force is applied to the long end of a lever, the power is increased. When speed is desired, the lever is shortened. The muscular power of the human body can only pull upon and bend the levers at the joints, when the masses of the back and pelvis are bent backward or forward, or to the side. The movement of the back is limited to the extent that the bony structure of the spine allows. Each segment of the spine is a lever, upon which the masses of the rib cage and the pelvis bend or turn. From the rear, the torso presents a great wedge with its apex directed downward. The base of the wedge is at the shoulders. This wedge...

Torsoback View

Anatomical Drawing Geometric Perspective

Bone, nape ligament and spine as far as twelfth dorsal, to clavicle, acromion and ridge of shoulder blade. Action Extends head, elevates shoulder and rotates shoulder blade. The back presents numerous depressions and prominences. This is due not only to its bony structure, but to the crossing and recrossing of a number of thin layers of muscles. It should be borne in mind that the superficial or outside layers manifest themselves only when in action. For this reason, under all changes of position, the spine, the shoulder blade with its acromion process, and the crest of the ilium, must be regarded as the landmarks of this region. The spine is composed of twenty-four vertebrae. It extends the full length of the back, and its course is marked by a furrow. The vertebrae are known as the cervical, dorsal and lumbar. The cervical vertebrae are seven in number, and the seventh is the most prominent in the whole of the spine. It is known as vertebra prominens. In the dorsal region the furrow...

Overlap and Tangents

How Draw Foreshortened Arm

We hove come to the point where we hove o solid structural drawing without all of the surface line. The cen-terline of her back, her spine, helps set up all of the structures. The buttock and hip area shows plenty of overlaps describing depth. Look at where two lines meet and which one moves over the other. The form it describes is in front.

Draw A Breast Bone

Drawing Collar And Breast Bones

A he thorax, or chest, is composed of bones and cartilages. It is designed not only to protect the heart and lungs, which it contains, but also to allow the whole mass to be turned and twisted with the different movements of the body. This cage is formed, at the back, by the spinal column, on the sides by the ribs, and in front by the breastbone. It protects the heart and lungs as a baseball mask protects the face its structure is yielding and elastic, so that it may serve as a bellows. The ribs are not complete circles, nor do they parallel each other they incline downward from the spine and bend at an angle at 2 The serrati the deep muscles of the spine 8 Rhomboideus rhomb-shaped, not right-angled from the shoulder blade to the spine


The flexile nature of the abdomen is also very marked the superior profile drags away from the iliac spine, which has become in this pose a point of suspension instead of being one of support, as it is in the vertical or sitting position. Following this top profile towards the shoulder, we notice how the first dip is succeeded by a new point, or rather surface, of suspension. We have reached the ribs. But the lowest ribs are ' floating and the whole structure of the thorax is flexible, so the climbing of the profile to this new suspension surface is more suave it is not brusque and uncompromising as was the change of direction at the totally rigid iliac spine. A new dip marks the limit of the arm system, and the subsequent rise profiles the latissimus dorsi coming forward to its insertion into the humerus in order to play its role in partly binding the arm to the body, in being one of the principal agents which prevent the arms from being torn away from the trunk when we are...

Trunk And Pelvis

From the triangle 1, 2, 3 of the sacrum springs the almost immediately flexible spinal column, which supports the thoracic cage, or ribs. The thorax is fairly constant in shape a good idea of it may be gathered from the Vesalius engravings (Figs. 93 and 94). The important fact to notice here is that, apart from the already flexible backbone, of which the composing vertebrae are also capable of rotatory movement one

The Figure In Action

The head, chest and vital organs are supported on a vertical spine, not hung below a horizontal one. As the front limbs no longer perform a supporting function, the shoulders have evolved to become wider apart, thus offering Man a far greater range of movement of the arms than is possible for the forelegs of, say, a horse or a cow. The suppleness of the spine makes twisting and bending motions possible. The broadened pelvis and modified hip-joint expand the range of uses to which the legs and feet can be applied in such activities as kicking and swimming indeed, the spine and joints of some individuals - 'double-jointed' people -are so flexible that their bodies can be contorted into almost any conceivable position, with the limbs held at almost any angle relative to one another.

Pose And Rhythm

While we are examining this part of the drawing we should do well to remark how the horizontal line (traced for I know not what reason) just marks about the limit of the top plane of the torso, a plane set forward at some forty-five degrees with the horizon. It gives the backward and upward trend of the clavicles, which, constructionally and for the moment, we may regard as accidents upon it. From this plane, and squarely set down on it, the neck springs upward in graceful curve, a curve which continues that of the backbone and so shows us once more, in the front of the figure, a reappearance of the great constructional rhythm that swept backwards from the thigh fronts over the haunches to unite in the single line of the spinal column. And on the neck the head is impeccably balanced.


Drapery in a chapter devoted to anatomical construction. But in so doing I am faithful to my creed of uniting, as far as possible, immediately interrelated causes and effects. On p. 305 we have noticed how the external oblique and abdominal forms dragged away from the iliac spine the soft forms of the body behaved exactly like so much drapery.

Rembrandt Drawing

Blade, with its muscular attributes, and the clavicle or collarbone. The whole body is coherent consequently our descriptive separation is false. I have already spoken of the common error of beginners in overlooking the ' carrying on ' of the forms over different sections of the body. Bad draughtsmen draw a forearm to the elbow, or an upper arm to the shoulder, and leave it at that they overlook the rhythmic insertion of one group of forms into the other. Among other interesting facts, the drawing of a woman's back by Rembrandt (Fig. 62) shows this quality of the insertions of forms one into the other very well indeed we may almost say that it is the thesis of the drawing, that it is for the moment the gospel text of his aesthetic sermon. Nearest to us comes the pelvic and buttock mass, of which the truncated cone-like form often seen in women is well shown. Upwards one follows it to coherence with the thorax, whose existence is just indicated in a masterly way by the two little...

The Bodys Axis

Human Body Axis

If you analyze the rear view of the torso, you will notice that the spine is describes the body's axis it is a line of symmetry from which the fundamental measurements of the body are established. Starting from this straight perpendicular, we have constructed a rear view of the torso, taking into account the following factors the distance between the shoulders and the spine should be equal, even if there is a slight incline the shoulder blades are the part of the back that stands out most, and its relief is most evident when the model has his arms open. The shoulder blade is triangular and should be accentuated with a light hatching. It's important to notice that the waist is more clearly marked in the frontal view than in the rear view, because from the

Latissimus Dorsi

Figs. 49,72, 83 a, 111) of the composite mass of the obliques, the author of the diagram completely obscures this fact by-bringing down the lower parts of the latissimus dorsi over the upper part of the obliques. The diagram thus belies the appearance of the photograph which it is supposed to explain. More than this, the anatomization is not even correct. The anterior edge of the latissimus dorsi is the only part of the muscle which is of sufficient thickness to modify, in a practical way, the surface modelling. A considerable number of fasciculi ascend from the posterior superior iliac spine to form this anterior border of the muscle. The diagram now before me shows the whole muscle sweeping backwards to an aponeurotic junction with the erector spinae mass It is true that in the photograph it is impossible to trace the iliac crest insertion after all, the posterior portion of the rectangle formed by the obliques and the transversalis is due to the first part of this branch of the...


Of course action is exaggerated in cartoons just as expressions and forms are exaggerated. In cartoons, even though the figure is not in motion, it is necessary to have what cartoonists term action. On Plate 10 is illustrated this kind of action. In Figure 1 the man is sitting erect and has little interest about it, except just its comical appearance. In Figure 2 this has been improved by having this man sit more on his spine and moving his knees up by putting his feet on a footstool. Note also the difference in Figures 4 and 5 on Plate 10. Figure 3 is another example of action without motion. Do you not tJiink this is a better cartoon than it would be if the sailor was standing erect, and the crows nest was larger. However, there is much room for improvement in the drawing of this cartoon.

The Torso

Bulging Levator Scapulae

The ridge of the shoulder blade is always conspicuous, pointing diagonally toward the corner of the shoulder. It sets at a fixed angle with the spinal edge (more than a right angle) and at a right angle with the lower turned-out corner. Of these muscles, those on either side of the ridge are easily recognizable the deltoid, below and outside, and trapezius, above and inside, but the trapezius also spreads from the inner end of the ridge to well down the spine. Under this, helping to form the bulge, are the rhomboidei, extending from the blade diagonally upward to the spine, and the levator anguli scapulae, from its upper corner almost vertically to the top of the neck.