UNDERDRAWING. Use your preview tools and a light sketch to indicate the basic shape and scale of the object. If you're working with a symmetrical object, check it out on a vertical surface at viewing distance.
A rt is created in layers. We begin with Jr\. an underdrawing, then work on top of it in steps, as in this demonstration. Darker values, crisper contours, and more details are added gradually. Every stage is a blend of steps, including back
When you fill in an object's overall value, change the direction of your strokes every cluster or so. Keep the shape of the object in mind to direct your scribble in directions that suggest the object's contours. Try to identify at least two directions of the surface— for instance, up and down and around— and move your pencil in those directions to fill in value. Don't flatten a rounded object by applying straight lines in one direction only. Smudge to finger-paint the surface of the object with the pencil dust.
steps to erase, or a jump ahead, to add values before the final step. Focus on an object from your group that particularly appeals to you-one you are willing to spend time with. Point a light on the object to bring out more dramatic dimension. Use 14"-x-17" paper, 2B and 2H pencils, and the eraser on a writing pencil.
Compare your subject matter with your drawing, viewed at a distance. Do you see anything that needs fixing? Squint hard to pick up on any value areas that need attention. Ask yourself:
• Are my value shapes accurate?
• Is a degree of dimension emerging ?
• Do my value edges transition softly where necessary ?
If your answer \s> yes to any of the above, you're well on your way. Now you have something to build on.
STEP 2: DEVELOPING FEATURES. Work on contours and add detail. Lightly outline any highlights. Establish the local value with a base of long, flattish scribbles. If your object is very light, use a 2H; otherwise, a 2B. Stay in the middle-value range for this step, no matter what your subject. Add the shadow shape on the object, always darker than the overall value. Soften the transition between shadow and overall value by using less pressure on your pencil. Put in the cast shadow, incorporating horizontal strokes to help the shadow lie flat. Show reflected light in the shadow, either by erasing shadow values or darkening around them. Ground the object with a balance-point shadow just beneath the object where it touches the surface.
STEP 3: FINALIZING. Look at your sketch carefully, squinting to check out values as compared with subject matter. Then overlay the base with shorter, tighter scribbling, changing direction often over all value areas. Use your eraser or finger to smooth out texture; your pencil point to make crisp, sharp edges and darker values where needed. Develop highlights and don't let the highlight outline stay darker than the surrounding value. Let the white of the paper represent the brightest highlights in your drawing. Some highlights may be darker than the paper. As a final touch, if the highlight has a soft edge, use your eraser to blur it.
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