## Problem Solvers

Problems routinely occur in art and far, the following common problems in life. We feel better about making and helpful solutions apply to all value so-called mistakes if we not only acquire drawings—not only with pencil and the ability to spot a problem, but also pen, but with wash, charcoal, and learn how to fix it. Although we have Conté, all of which will be introduced worked only with pencil and pen so in later chapters.

PROBLEM. Is the cast shadow on your tabletop too active, too contoured?

PROBLEM. Are the highlights on your drawing vague, not convincing as the brightest parts of the object?

SOLUTION. Horizontal strokes within the shadow will flatten it, thereby reinforcing the flat table surface.

SOLUTION. Horizontal strokes within the shadow will flatten it, thereby reinforcing the flat table surface.

SOLUTION. Camouflage the outlines around highlights, and make them pop up well, with an application of darker, finer value scribbles.

PROBLEM. Does the shape look flat, with an abrupt transition between values, making the shadows seem pasted on, not integrated into the drawing?

SOLUTION. Overlay stacks of straight lines with multidimensional strokes; use transitional grays between shadow and overall value; soften with finger or eraser.

PROBLEM. Does the shape look somewhat flat, not convincing the viewer that it's a three-dimensional object?

drawing by student stephanie seidel

SOLUTION. Use more values to create dimension. Darken the lower portion of the object, where it begins to merge with a shadow, drawing by student Stephanie seidel

PROBLEM. Is your contour line too dominant in relation to the object's overall value?

SOLUTION. If you have drawn your contour line with uniform pressure, create "lost and found edges" by softening the contour here and there with your eraser.

PROBLEM. Does your object seem to float rather than sit SOLUTION. Add the small, dark shadow shape beneath the solidly on a surface? object to ground it to the table.

PROBLEM. Is the object too pale, as though it's fading away?

SOLUTION. The entire object, including surface pattern, should show the effects of light and shadow in order to achieve a three-dimensional look.

PROBLEM. Have you focused more on surface pattern than on depicting dimension, thereby causing the pattern to look flat?