(a) Hardness grades are printed on the pencils, e.g., a very soft graphite pencil is the 6B which produces the darkest, boldest line. The hardest is the 9H which produces a lighter line. Be careful when trying to make lighter tones with a soft pencil. You may create an unwanted grainy effect. However, you can take advantage of a textured effect if you need it (fig 1-3 and fig 1-10). Graphite reflects light and, therefore, appears shiny.
(b) Carpenter's pencils (rectangular graphite) are used for special effects applications, such as drawing shingles, leaf patterns, and other subjects. See Figure 1-2 on how to sharpen and hold a carpenter's pencil, and an example of a special effect application.
b. Pens consist of two parts: the point, and the holder. There are two different types of pens: quill pens, and reservoir pens. When drawing with these pens, use drawing ink.
(1) Quill pens (fig 1-4) (sometimes erroneously called dip pens). Load with an eye dropper containing ink. Add a drop of ink to the hollow (well) beneath the pen point. Do not dip the pens into the ink; never submerge the point completely. The points on quill pens may be either stiff or flexible. Use the stiff points to draw a line of consistent weight. Use flexible points to draw graded lines. Lineweight variations depends on the pressure applied.
(2) Reservoir pens hold the ink supply within the pen itself, normally in the pen holder. They contain a reservoir which feeds ink to the point. Reservoir pens carry either drawing ink or writing ink, but never both. The most common examples of reservoir pens are fountain, ballpoint, and felt-tip pens. Fountain pens have interchangeable points and come in a variety of shapes, sizes, and degrees of flexibility. They resemble quill pens.
(a) Originally, technical fountain pens (fig 1-4) were used for ruling straight uniform lines in drafting. They are also suited to freehand drawings (figs 1-5A and 1-5B). These pens feature an ink reservoir attached to the barrel of the pen. Some reservoirs are translucent plastic cartridges within the body of the pen. Ink is delivered to the surface through a hollow shaft of a feed tube which forms the point. Ink flow is controlled by the cleaning pin and gravity. The large ink supply held by the cartridge reduces ink loading time and the chance of a spill. After using the pens, rinse all parts in running water and blot dry. If ink dries in the pens, soak them in pen-cleaning solution and clean them thoroughly.
(b) Ballpoint pens are similar to fountain pens. The ink is rolled on by a small ball located at the tip of the reservoir. The ink supply and point are permanently attached. When the ink is gone, throw out and replace the pen. Ballpoint pens sometimes require a wipe of the tip, otherwise there is no cleaning. They come in sizes from broad to extra fine.
(c) Felt-tip pens and markers have a nylon or felt core that distributes ink to the points. The point of felt tips, like ballpoints, is permanently attached to the ink supply. Throw the tool away when the ink supply is exhausted. These pens come in a large variety of different point sizes and shapes. The ink in most felt tips is waterproof and dries instantly.
c. Use brushes to apply most liquid media to a surface. The style of drawing, the medium used, and the technique required will determine the brush type you will use. The three most common brushes are the round, flat, and bright (fig 1-6).
(1) Round brushes come to points which vary from sharp to blunt. Use appropriately-sized rounds to apply or float on washes.
(2) Flat brushes have straight edges and broad tips. The flattened ferrule gives these brushes their shape. Flats should be about 2 1/2 times longer than they are wide. Use a large flat (1 to 3-inch stiff bristled) house paint brush for blending large areas of stiff tone or color media. Additionally, there are special use brushes, e.g., a fan brush for adding texture.
(3) Brights are shorter than flat brushes in that they are only about 1 1/2 times as long as they are wide. Brights have fairly sharp corners. Brights perform well for applying a thick, stiff medium.
(4) Brushes consist of three parts, the bristles or hair, the ferrule, and the handle (fig
NOTE: As you progress, you may find your own preferences for use of each style and size of brush.
(a) The bristles or hairs of a brush can be red sable, camel's hair, hog hair, or nylon. Red sable brushes are the most durable and pliant. Camel's hair, hog hair, and nylon brushes are stiff. stiff brushes are ideal for thick media.
(b) Ferrule - The ferrule is the small tube which holds the form of the bristle and connects it to the handle. The size of the ferrule will determine the size and shape of a brush. Most ferrules are seamless metal while others are plastic.
(c) Handle - The handle is the part of the brush you hold when painting. Made of hardwood or plastic, the handle is marked with the brush size. Handles should provide proper balance for the brush.
d. Shading sheets come in a wide variety of line and dot patterns and densities (fig 1-7). They are adhesive backed and printed on clear acetate or waxed paper. These sheets can save you a lot of time since you will not have to draw these patterns. Use shading sheets for line art reproduction methods.
e. Stumps are tightly rolled sheets of paper. They come in various thicknesses with both ends pointed. Use stumps to blend or smudge pencil, charcoal, or pastels.
f. A plumb is a tool used to measure proportions of and within your subject. A plumb is an object longer than it is wide and has a straight edge. A pencil or brush handle will serve as a plumb.
g. Erasers (fig 1-8) come in different levels of abrasiveness. Each affects the drawing surface to its own degree. Kneaded and artgum erasers have gentle abrasives. Use erasers minimally to correct drawings to avoid overcorrecting the artwork.
(1) Kneaded erasers - These erasers do not rub the particles across the surface, but lift and absorb them, leaving little chance of smudging. Periodically after use, knead the medium picked up into the eraser. Shape these erasers into a fine point or an edge allowing pickup or lifting out of small areas. Use this as an excellent way to create highlights or other effects (fig 19).
(2) Artgum erasers - The very popular artgum erasers are soft, pliable erasers that will not mar a drawing. Use them primarily for removing smudges or fingerprints.
(3) Ruby red erasers - Ruby red erasers are firmer and more abrasive. Use them to remove light ink smudges.
(4) Steel erasers - The steel eraser looks like a scalpel. Using the eraser's rounded edge, lightly scrape excess dried ink. Once done, follow up with the ruby red eraser to remove remaining ink. Remember to reburnish the surface of the paper or board before re-inking or a large "bleed" will occur.
h. White-out correction fluid comes in a water or oil base for covering small errors made in line media work. Use the appropriate type for the line media used. Use white-out on camera-ready line art when waterproof ink has been used. Certain ink mistakes will bleed if water-based correction fluid is applied as a cover up.
i. Fixatives are thin, lacquer/varnish-like liquids sprayed on drawings. These varnishes will keep the media from smudging and help to protect the drawing from ultraviolet (UV) yellowing. Some types of fixatives are glossy, workable, nonworkable flat, and UV.
Learning Event 2:
IDENTIFY AND DESCRIBE VARIOUS DRAWING SURFACES, THEIR COMPOSITION, AND MEASUREMENT DESIGNATORS
1. The surface to which you apply media is of major importance. The most common surfaces are various papers and drawing board. Paper is made by putting various fibrous materials through unique milling, processing, refining and finishing methods. The texture of the surface, tooth, bites off the dry media as it is dragged over the surface.
2. Paper used for drawings may be smooth or rough textured (toothed). A good drawing paper with a rough surface bites and holds graphite better. A rough surface will give high contrast to pencil drawings. A firm, smooth finish will result in low pencil contrast. Make ink drawings on smooth, firm-finished paper or cardstock. Apply washes to a thick, absorbent water color paper surface. Be careful not to apply too much wash or the paper will buckle.
3. Papers are measured in percentage of rag content and acidity/alkylin balancing.
a. Rag content (measured in percent) refers to the amount of cotton fiber contained in the paper. Originally, paper was made using a crushed wood fiber process. Ultimately, cotton fibers were added. In milling cotton, long fibers are used in textiles; short fibers are used in milling various papers. The cotton fiber content increases the papers' permanence, strength, and durability. The increased quality is also reflected in cost. Newsprint has very little to no cotton fiber while 100-percent rag is found in various linens which contain no wood fibers. With the advent of synthetics, cotton fibers are used less and less.
b. Paper milling processes contain acids. Acid content in papers have a negative reaction with surrounding elements. Air and light weaken and yellow paper with time. Acidity can be neutralized in the milling process by adding an alkylin. Acid free, or neutral papers have a pH balance measurement of 6.5 to 7 on a 0 to 14 scale. They are the most desirable because they least affect the illustration and stay white the longest. Be aware the pH balance can be affected by some art materials (media).
c. The surface hardness and texture are further determined in the final stage of milling. Some papers or board have a very Smooth, hard surface, while others may be textured, soft, or both. Experiment with as many as possible to become knowledgeable.
4. Board should have an appropriate texture for pencil or ink drawings. The tooth of smoother surfaces is good for ink drawings, but may not bite off enough of dry medium for accurate contrast. The best surfaces for ink drawing should be firm and smooth. Ross board has a rough tooth to make pencil drawings appear camera ready, like line art. Use a soft pencil, e.g., 4B. or 6B.
5. Refining drawing skills will lead to projects using other surfaces and tools. Many styles, surfaces, textures and colors are available. Each creates its own effect depending on the medium and application you use. Experiment with them for familiarity and self improvement (fig 1-10).
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