Step 1. Above the horizontal guideline that represents the dividing line between the lips, the artist draws the upper lip with just a few crisp lines, plus a single line for the curve leading upward to the base of the nose, In the same way, he draws the lower lip with a few angular lines and then carefully draws the shape of the chin with curving strokes. Notice the slanted line that touches the lips of the upper and lower lips at the right- This is an important guideline because it indicates the relationship between the lips: the upper lip normally protrudes farther forward.
Step 2. Working carcfuily over the sketchy lines of Step lT the artist redefines the shapes of Ihe lips with darker Lines. Notice how the upper lip turns down and slightly overlaps the lower lip. The lower lip recedes slightly and is just a bit thicker than the upper lip* The artist also strengthens the lines of the chin and accentuates the shadowy corner of the mouth.
Step 3. The artist adds broad areas of tone with the side of the lead. You can see clearly that the upper lip is in shadow because it slants downward, away from the light. The lower lip is paler because it turns upward and receives the light, The upper lip casts just a hint of shadow across the lower lip; there's also a hint of shadow along the lower edge. Beneath the lower lip is a concave area that curves away from the light and is filled with shadow. The artist adds more shadow at the corner of the mouth and begins to model the tones of the chin and jaw.
Step 4, The artist darkens the upper lip and accentuates the shadow line between the lips, as well as ihe dark corner of the mouth. He deepens the pool of shadow beneath the lower lip and adds more strokes to model the entire jaw area, which now becomes rounder and more three-dimensional- Finally, he darkens the forward edge of the lower lip, which receives the shadow cast by the overlapping upper lip. It's interesting to study the pattern of the pencil strokes, which gradually change direction to follow the curving forms of the mouth, chin, and jaw.
Step 1. When the head turns downward—or when we look at the head from slightly above—we get a different view of the mouth. We see somewhat less of the upper lip and more of the lower lip. (In this drawing, the head is turned slightly to the left, and so we also see more of the right side of the muuth.) As you've seen in previous demonstrations, the preliminary drawing captures the wing shape of the upper lip and the three planes of the lower lip—all with straight, simple lines.
Step 2. The artist redraws the lips with softer, curving lines and gently erases the more angular guidelines of Step 1. Now you see the protruding center of the upper lip, which slightly overlaps the lower lip. The corners of the mouth turn slightly upward and the wing shape of the upper lip becomes more graceful. The artist also strengthens the lines of the chin, the jaw, and the groove between the upper lip and the base of the nose.
Step 3, The artist darkens the upper lip selectively. The upper lip actually has a kind of zigzag shape that's sometimes in light and sometimes in shadow. This is most apparent at the center, where the left plane catches the light and the right plane is in shadow; the artist accentuates the shadow plane to make the shape jut forward. He also darkens the line between the lips, adds tone to the lower lip, darkens the shadow plane at the right, and also darkens the underside of the lower lip to make the shape look rounder. He begins to model the tones on the chin and jaw.
Step 4. As the artist darkens the tones of the lips, it's obvious that the light comes from the left, since the right planes are in shadow. He darkens the right sides of both lips and deepens the shadow line between the lips. He also accentuates the dark corners of the mouth. The shadowy underside of the lower lip is darkened to make the shape look rounder and fuller. An eraser picks out highlights on the rounded lower lip. The artist darkens the shadow area beneath the lower Hp and models the soft curves of the chin and jaw+
Step 1. The preliminary sketch emphasizes the proportions of the nose in relation to the eyes. The space between the eyes is usually the width of one eye. The artist draws vertical guidelines down from the inner corners of the eyes to indicate the width of the nose—which is about "one eye wide" at the base. These vertical guidelines establish the outer edges of the nostrils. Now study the inner guidelines: the diagonals that connect the brow to the bridge; the verticals that define the bridge; and the diagonals that indicate the tip of the nose. The vertical center line aids symmetry.
Step 3. With the side of the lead, the artist blocks in the tones with broad strokes. The light comes from the left, and so the right side of the nose is in shadow. Since the nose locks into the eye sockets, the artist adds tone to the sockets at the same time. There's a particularly dark patch of tone in the eye socket at the right, just above the bridge of the nose. The nose also casts a shadow downward toward the right, over the upper lip.^Thc artist erases the guidelines of Step 1, adds tone to the underside of the nose, and darkens the nostrils.
Step 2. Over the vertical guidelines of Step 11 the artist draws curving lines to define the shapes of the nostrils, plus firm, straight lines to define the tip of the nose more precisely. The artist doesn't draw the nose in isolation but works on the other features at the same time. He begins to define the shapes of the eyes more precisely, since the shape of the nose flows into the eye sockets. He also indicates the shape of the groove leading from the nose to the upper lip.
Step 4. The artist now sharpens the contours and builds up the tones. Study the subtle gradation of tone on the shadow side of the nose, as well as the gradations on the tip of the nose and the nostrils. The underside of the nose is in shadow, but there's just enough reflected light within the shadow to define the shapes. Notice how the cast shadow under the nose is paler as the tone recedes downward. There are also deep shadows in the eye sockets on either side of the nose, plus a soft patch of shadow just above the bridge, where the brow slants down, away from the light.
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