Step 4. With a pink rubber eraser, ihe artist removes most of the guidelines that appeared in Steps 1,2. and 3. Now he can see the lines of the profile and features more clearly and begin to block in the tone. Turning the thick pencil on its side, the artist begins to render the tones surrounding the eyes and nose, the cast shadow beneath the nose, the dark tone of the upper lip. and the pool of shadow beneath the lower lip. Broad, free strokes fill the underside of the jaw with shadow, indicating the interlocking patches of shadow thai move from the underside of the cheek down to the jaw. Patches of shadow are placed on the hair, within the ear, beneath the ear, and at the back of the neck. All the tones are still quite pale, but the purpose of this fourth step is simply to establish the major areas of light and shade.
Step 5, The artist begins to build up the gradations within the tones. He darkens the eyebrow and the tones within the eye socket, then moves downward to build up the tones of the nose and lips. He sharpens the nostril and the shadow beneath the nose, and then he strengthens the shadow of the upper lip. He also darkens the tones within and around the ear. Focusing on the larger areas of the face, he strengthens the shadows on the cheek, jaw, neck, and hair. The tip of the pencil defines the contours of the ear more precisely and draws the squarish shape of the sideburn,
Step 6. Gradually, (he strokes of the side of the thick pencil become more distinct as the artist continues to build up the tones. Observe the short, decisive strokes that model the eye sockets, the side of the nose, the corner of the mouth, and the lone that travels downward from the cheek to the jaw. The artist darkens the underside of the jaw with broad, distinct strokes that accentuate the squarish, bony shape. The hair is darkened with thick strokes that suggest texture and detail. With the sharp tip of the pencil, the artist begins to emphasize the features. He darkens the eyebrow and sharpens the lines of the eyelids. Ho adds crisp touches to define the contours of the nostril, lips, and car more precisely. Notice the tiny accents of darkness within the nostril, at the corner of the mouth, between the lips, and within the rim of the car.
Step 7. The pencil moves over the face, adding clusters of parallel strokes that enrich the tones of the brow, cheek, jaw, and neck. More strokes darken and model the eye socket, nose, lips, and ear. The sharpened point of the pencil delicately retraces the contour of the profile and sharpens the eyelids, nostril, lips, and ear. The side of the pencil darkens the hair with thick strokes and adds a hint of tone on the bare paper along the edge of the brow—-accentuating the light on the sitter's bony forehead.
Step 1. The rich skin tones of a black sitter will give you an opportunity to ti^ a pencil-drawing technique that combines strokes with blending. For this technique, a sheet of charcoal paper is particularly suitable, since the delicately ribbed surface softens the strokes and also lends itself beautifully to blended tones executed with a fingertip or a Stomp. The artist begins his demonstration with the standard egg shape divided by a vertical center line, plus horizontal lines for the eyes, nose, and mouth. Notice that there's just one horizontal line for the eyes, above which the artist will place the eyebrows. The lowest horizontal line locates the bottom edge of the lower lip, which is halfway between the nose and chin. The artist visualizes the neck as a slightly tilted cylinder. Notice that he doesn't hesitate to go over these guidelines several times until he gets the shape exactly right. Because this demonstration requires so much blending, the artist selects a soft, thick 4B pencil.
Step 2. Working with the sharpened tip of the pencil, the artist locates the eyes on the horizontal guideline that crosses the midpoint of the head, and then he places the brows above this line. On either side of the vertical center line, he establishes the outer contours of the nose, and then he moves down to locate the tip of the nose and the nostrils on the next horizontal guideline. He places the ears between the guidelines of the eyes and nose. On the lowest horizontal guideline, he makes a dark stroke to indicate the deep valley beneath the lower lip. Then he places the dividing line of the lips roughly one-third of the way down from the nose to the chin. He squares up the corners of the jaw, indicates the curves of the cheeks, and swings the line of the collar around the cylindrical shape of the neck. Moving outward from the lop and sides of the egg, the artist indicates the shape of the hair.
Step 3, With the point of the thick pencil, the artist now defines the shapes of the head and features more exactly. He redraws the contours of the cheeks, jaw, chin, and neck directly over the original guidelines of Steps I and 2. The pencil point carefully traces the hairline. Then the artist focuses on the features: he sharpens the contours of the eyebrows and draws the upper and lower lids; defines the shapes of the nostrils and the tip of the nose; constructs the planes of the lips; and emphasizes small, significant details such as the corners of the eyes, the corners of the lips, and the cleft in the chin. Finally, he draws the irregular curves of the collar.
Step 4, Turning the thick pencil on its side, ihe artist begins to block in the tones with broad strokes. The light comes from the left, placing most of the head in shadow, This head is an example of what artists call rim lighting, There's a sn ip (or rim) of light along one edge of the face, neck, nose, and upper IipT but Ihc rest of the face doesn't receive direct lighl. There's a dark edge where the light and shadow planes meet; the artist accentuates this by pressing his pencil hinder at the edges of the lighted areas on the forehead, cheek, jaw, neck, and nose. He covers the shadowy areas of the face with broad horizontal strokes and then emphasizes the strong darks within the shadow areas: the brows, eye sockets, and eyes; the bridge of the nose and the nostrils; the upper lip and the dark tones beneath the lower lip; the chin; and the shadow beneath thi neck. The artist also begins to darken the ha r and the shadow side of the collar. By the ^d of this step, there's a clear distinction between the lighl and shadow areas.
Step 5, The artist begins to deepen the tones by moving the Hat side of the pencil back and forth over tiic face. The broad strokes are most apparent in the forehead and cheek, where you often see big gaps between the strokes—although these gaps will disappear when the artist begins to blend the tones. He strengthens the dark areas where the light and shadow planes meet on the side of the face, nose, and upper lip. He darkens the hair, the shadow on the neck, and the shadow side of the collar. Then he moves inside the face to strengthen the contours and to darken the tones of the eyebrows, eyes, nose, and iipSn With the point of the pencil, he emphasizes the dark edges of the eyelids, nostrils, and lips.
Step 6, Pressing stilt harder and moving the side of the pencil back and forth over the textured paper, the artist strengthens all the darks within the shadow planes of the face. He darkens the tones within the eye sockets, along the bridge of the nose, beneath the nose and checks, within the lips, around the chin, and on ihe neck. With short, curving, scribbly strokes, he darkens the tone of the hair to suggest its curly texture. And with the tip of the pencil he sharpens all the features, indicating such details as the pupils of the eyes, the shadow lines around the nostrils, and the dark line between the lips.
Step 7. The artist moves over the shadow areas with a fingertip, blending the strokes into smooth, glowing tones. The blending is done selectively: the artist concentrates mainly on the forehead, cheeks, nose, upper lip, and chin. A kneaded rubber eraser brightens the lighted areas and picks out highlights on the nose and cheek. The pencil strengthens the darks of the eye sockets and lids, the lips, the undersides of the checks, and the sides of the jaws. The tip of the pencil accentuates the contours of the eyelids, irises, and pupils: the nostrils: and the dark dividing line between ihe lips.
Step 1. Having discovered how easy it is to blend graphite on the hard surface of a sheet of textured paper, you know that a pencil drawing can actually begin to look like a "painting" in black and white. Now you might like to try a pencil portrait in which nearly all the tones arc softiy blended, so that the strokes of the pencil virtually disappear. For this drawing, the right tool is a thick, soft pencil—or perhaps a stick of graphite in a holder—that might be 4B, 5B, or even 6B, The artist chooses a 5B graphite lead in a plastic holder and works on a sheet of very rough paper with a much more pronounced tooth than the charcoal paper used in the preceding demonstration. He begins by drawing the usual compound egg shape and a tilted cylinder for the ncck. The head is turned to a three-quarter view, and so the vertical center line is actually fj// center. Horizontal guidelines locate the features; the artist divides these lines with liny touches to locate the eyes and the corners of the nose and mouth,
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