## Side View

Observer is still in helicopter but now looking straight down at Secretariat Building. (Compare with page 38, bottom.)

[46] Many Cubes Oriented In The Same Direction Results In Only Two Sets Of Converging Lines

[46] Many Cubes Oriented In The Same Direction Results In Only Two Sets Of Converging Lines

Here, many parallel cubes, above and below eye level, are viewed simultaneously (within one cone of vision). Therefore the chains (all horizonal and parallel) will converge toward one vanishing point, and the wires (horizontal and parallel, but going in a different direction) will converge toward a different vanishing point. The pipes, being parallel to the observer's face, will remain parallel.

Note that wires and chains above eye level converge downwards, while those below eye level converge upwards. (If any were exactly on eye level they would naturally appear horizontal.)

These simple principles are evident in the perspective rendering shown below.

Project for Hill City Inc. D'Amelio & Hohauser, Architects. Rendering by Joseph D'Amelio

Project for Hill City Inc. D'Amelio & Hohauser, Architects. Rendering by Joseph D'Amelio

A group of cubes (or bricks, dominoes, etc.) facing various directions has many different sets of horizontal parallel lines. Each set, if extended, would appear to converge to its own vanishing point on the horizon line (eye level). Below are applications of this principle.

I I I I 1 I r<; u. ^..¡¿.¡^/ff^ -y1' -

GENERAL RULE: WHEN THERE ARE MANY SETS OF PARALLEL HORIZONTAL LINES, EACH SET WILL CONVERGE TOWARD ITS OWN VANISHING POINT ON THE HORIZON LINE (EYE LEVEL).

[48] Why A Thorough Knowledge Of Simple Shapes Is Important

## Freehand Sketching An Introduction

Learn to sketch by working through these quick, simple lessons. This Learn to Sketch course will help you learn to draw what you see and develop your skills.

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