## Side Vi Ew

Looking Straight Out At The Cube

The pipes are parallel to face (and picture plane), so in all views they appear as true verticals. The vanishing points for horizontals must be at eye level (which is also in this case the plane of the central visual ray). The top views below show the method of locating these points.

The chains and wires converge and foreshorten. Their vanishing points are equidistant from the cone of vision in top view. Therefore they are equidistant from cube in picture. Note equal angles.

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Again both sets of horizontal lines converge and foreshorten. But since observer's right arm points further away, the right vanishing point is more distant. (See example across page.)

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In this case, only the wires are oblique to the picture plane (actually, they are perpendicular to it) and therefore they alone converge. The central visual ray itself points to their vanishing point. (See example across page.)

NOTE: The vanishing points are closest to each other when the two front vertical surfaces of the cube make equal angles with observer, i.e., when observer looks exactly at a corner (top of page). They spread apart as one surface draws parallel to observer's face and the other foreshortens (center of page). Finally (bottom diagram), they are an infinite distance apart.

Apartment House, New York City. D'Amelio & Hohauser, Architects. Rendering by Joseph D'Amelio Medical Clinic Entrance. D'Amelio & Hohauser, Architects. Rendering by Joseph D'Amelio ,

Looking Down At The Cube

The pipes are no longer parallel to observer's face (and picture plane) so they also converge and foreshorten. Their vanishing point on picture plane is located by pointing downwards in their direction.

The vanishing points for horizontals must be on the eye level-horizon line (pointed to by other arm). The manner in which a pointing observer locates them on this line is again shown in the different top views.

Neither chains nor wires are parallel to picture plane, so both converge and foreshorten. Their vanishing points equidistant from picture because both pointing arms are equidistant from cone of vision.

Again, chains and wires are oblique to picture plane, so both converge and foreshorten. The chains' vanishing point is further away because the pointing right arm is further from the cone of vision.

Chains are now parallel to picture plane so they appear parallel and horizontal. (If observer pointed in their direction

(dotted lines) he would never intersect the picture plane.) Wires are not parallel to the picture plane. A sight line parallel to the wires (located directly above the central visual ray) points to their vanishing point on eye level.

Two examples of "looking down." Note the downward convergence of vertical lines.

18th-century drawing by Johann Schubler. Courtesy of The Cooper Union Museum, New York City

Midnight Ride of Paul Revere, by Grant Wood. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Courtesy of Associated American Artists

Again neither chains nor wires are parallel to picture plane so both converge and foreshorten. Their vanishing points are equidistant from picture because observer's arms are equidistant from cone of vision. Note equal angles which result when "looking at corner."

[42] Looking Up At The Cube

The pipes, not being parallel to face and picture plane, will converge and foreshorten. Their vanishing point on picture plane is located by pointing

upwards in their direction. The vanishing points for horizontal lines must be on eye level-horizon line. The top views below again show how they are located along this line.

Chains are parallel to picture plane so they remain parallel and horizontal. (Try pointing toward their vanishing point.) Wires are not parallel to picture plane; a horizontal sight line parallel to the wires (located directly below the central visual ray) points to their vanishing point on eye level.

Neither chains nor wires are parallel to the picture so both converge and foreshorten. The chains' vanishing point is further away because the pointing right arm is further from cone of vision.

Chains are parallel to picture plane so they remain parallel and horizontal. (Try pointing toward their vanishing point.) Wires are not parallel to picture plane; a horizontal sight line parallel to the wires (located directly below the central visual ray) points to their vanishing point on eye level.

upwards in their direction. The vanishing points for horizontal lines must be on eye level-horizon line. The top views below again show how they are located along this line.

[42] Looking Up At The Cube

The pipes, not being parallel to face and picture plane, will converge and foreshorten. Their vanishing point on picture plane is located by pointing

Again neither chains nor wires are parallel to picture plane so both converge and foreshorten. Their vanishing points are equidistant from picture because observer's arms are equidistant from cone of vision. Note equal angles which result when "looking at corner."

Two examples of "looking up." Note the upward convergence of vertical lines.

Windows, by Charles Sheeler. Courtesy of the Downtown Gallery, N. Y.

(Below) Painted by Austin Briggs for McCalls magazine

[44] Cube Studies Applied To Drawings Of United Nations Buildings

Now let's look again at the U.N. buildings. Each view results in a different type of convergence and foreshortening. Each should be referred back to the cube drawing of similar viewpoint.

Observer is much closer but still looking straight ahead. (See page 38, center.)

Observer is across the river at ground level, looking straight ahead. (See page 38, bottom.)

Observer is now in Manhattan, still looking straight ahead and still at a distance. (See page 38, center.)

Observer is across the river at ground level, looking straight ahead. (See page 38, bottom.)

Observer is now in Manhattan, still looking straight ahead and still at a distance. (See page 38, center.)

Observer is much closer but still looking straight ahead. (See page 38, center.)

Cube Studies Applied To Drawings Of United Nations Buildings (Cont.) [45]

top view

Observer is at same position but is now looking up. (See page 42, center.)

top view

Observer is at same position but is now looking up. (See page 42, center.)

Observer is now in helicopter looking down. (See page 40, center.)

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### Responses

• Simret
How to draw like charles sheeler?
3 years ago
• marley ritchie
How to draw human eye perspective drawing of a clinic?
5 months ago