As you start to draw from nature, you will want to indicate textures such as stone, wood, grass, shingles, etc. Not only will this give your drawings authenticity, but it will also add liveliness and interest. Remember, however, that you are not copying an object, but indicating it—this means that you do not want to strive for a photographic copy, but, you do want to combine values and strokes to simulate the quality of the object's texture. When lines and tones are combined, you achieve the patterns necessary to draw convincing subjects (see below and following page). Creat ing textures with the use of lines, not tones, is shown here: A jagged line (A) using a vertical motion and varying the pressure. A jagged line (B), but using only a horizontal movement, also varying the pressure. Large, curved, continuous line (C) with a rounded point. A finger line (D), small curves, varying the pressure. Long arcs (E), dark with pressure, small areas changing direction, and lighter pressure. Short, curved strokes (F) from bottom to top. and varying the pressure and direction. Longer, curved strokes (G) from bottom to top, combined with long arcs. Short, straight strokes (H), slightly varying the direction. Very short strokes (I), becoming wider apart, shorter, with less pressure as it gets lighter. Jagged, vertical strokes (J) moving down and then back up without lifting the pencil from the paper. A continuous jagged line (K), varying the pressure. Very short strokes (L), becoming longer, and using more pressure as they get darker. Short strokes (M), varying the pressure from left to right. Long irregular lines (N), flat point, with less pressure on the right. Short angle lints (O), varying the pressure, moving from top to bottom.
Here is a closeup demonstration of how various strokes and combinations of strokes can be used to indicate the textures of shingles, grass and trees. Don't try to draw a complete picture, but pick out close-up views of different subjects.
Shingles made with a combination of strokes from the previous page: (0) short angle lines, varying the pressuio, moving from top to bottom; (M) short strokes, varying pressure from left to right: and (B) a jagged line but using only a horizontal movement, also varying pressure.
Grass in the fields made with strokes from the previous page: (F) short, curved strokes from bottom to top, varying the pressure and direction; (H) short, straight strokes, slightly varying the direction; and (E) long arcs, dark with pressure, small areas changing direction, and lighter pressure.
Tree trunk using strokes from the previous page: (O) short angle lines, varying the pressure, moving from top to bottom; (J) jagged, vertical strokes moving down and then back up without lifting the pencil from the paper: and (E) long arcs, dark with pressure, small areas changing direction, and lighter pressure.
Seeing the Landscape as Values
Suppose you are drawing a gray barn of the 5th value against a mountain of Ihe 4th value and a foreground of the 6th value. If you make all the values as they are, it will be a pretty monotonous drawing. (If you are having difficulty with values, review the value charts on pages 12-13.)
Now start to change the values. Make the barn a 7th value, the mountains a 3rd value, and the foreground a 5th value. Notice how you are now getting some separation and interest.
Go a step further and make the barn a 10th value, the mountains a 0 value, and the foreground a 5th value. You now have the widest range of values possible. There are a variety of value arrangements you can make in any drawing. It is up to you to decide where you want the emphasis and what effect you want to achieve.
In this drawing the values are exactly as the artist saw them. The values are the darkest in the foreground and lighter in the distance. He drew this one on the spot.
Again, the artist changed the values. This time he made the middle distances the darkest value. This arrangement is not as effective as the other two, since it gives an unnatural change of values. There should be a cloud that casts a shadow over that area, but it is not too likely.
This is the same scene as above, but here he changed the values. He changed the background from the lightest to the darkest value. Notice that by changing values, you can obtain a different emphasis. There is never only one way for values to be correct. Experiment by changing the values until you arrive at the most effective composition.
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