Ebook On Drawing Pencil Portraits
In my classes, I demonstrate Pure Contour Drawing, describing how to use the method as I draw if I can manage to keep talking (an L-mode function) while I'm drawing. Usually, I start out all right but begin trailing off in mid-sentence after a minute or so. By that time, however, my students have the idea. Following the demonstration, I show examples of previous students' Pure Contour Drawings. See examples of students' drawings on page 95. Think back now on how you felt at the beginning of the Pure Contour Drawing compared to how you felt later, when you were deeply into the drawing. What did that later state feel like Did you lose awareness of time passing Like Max Ernst, did you become enamored of what you saw When you return to the alternative state you were in, will you recognize it Pure Contour Drawing is so effective at producing this strong shift that many artists routinely begin drawing with at least a short session of the method, in order to start the process of shifting to...
All colored pencils are to some degree turpentine soluble, but only some brands are water soluble. Those that are water soluble include the Caran D'Ache Supracolor, Venus Watercolor-ing, and Mongol brands. The Pris-macolor and Spectracolor brands are among those that are not water soluble. However, the point here is not to discover which of these two solvents is better because neither is but only to understand the nature of their differences in solubility and how this influences how you handle a particular type or brand of colored pencil. In either case, there are two basic approaches to using solvents with colored pencil 1. The solvent is added only where needed for spot blending and intensification. This is done by simply dipping a colored pencil's point into a cup of solvent or into a solvent-saturated cotton ball a rolled paper stomp (tor-tillon) or a watercolor brush dipped in solvent can also be used to apply the solvent to the surface. This kind of spot blending is particularly...
Charcoal is, as we have mentioned, a very unstable material. Once applied to the surface of the paper or support it can easily be erased or smudged, especially accidentally. When you are satisfied that your charcoal drawing has reached a point where you feel it is finished, it is important that you stabilise the drawing immediately on to the support. This is what is termed fixing the drawing.
Dersonal experience is the best guide lo finding the brands ot colored pencils most useful to you. Here are some of the pencils now available, with a few brief remarks about them D. Niji (Japan) Similar in quality to C but fashioned as mechanical pencil with separate leads. J. Carb-Othello (Germany) Included here as a reference. This pencil is actually a pastel rather than a true colored pencil contains much less binder, therefore handling differs greatly. Blends easily by rubbing, unlike colored pencils.
There are two basic techniques that you'll need to know for working with Prismacolor colored pencils layering and burnishing. Choose your approach depending on the subject matter you are attempting to capture, or the look or texture you're trying to evoke. All colored pencil drawings begin with layering. It is done by applying the pencil with light layers, keeping a sharp point on the pencil at all times. The hallmark look of layering is when the texture of the paper shows through the pencil, giving it a somewhat grainy appearance. With the layering technique, you will also be able to see your pencil strokes, giving your works a more hand-drawn appearance. Always remember, it requires patience to build the tones. Hurrying with colored pencil will create an unevenness in the application and ruin the look of your drawing. Do not overlap too many different colors, or they will build up and become opaque. Lightly draw two spherical stones on your drawing paper with a mechanical pencil....
His drawing did not look the way he intended. It was a symbol, a simplified version of the subject he chose to draw. This is a logical way for anyone to start drawing. Unfortunately, symbols don't show what the world really looks like. Using the principles of drawing, you will learn to draw realistically, and the importance of avoiding symbols. a. Depth is the most difficult of the three dimensions to capture and is an illusion in a drawing. The use of perspective drawing is one way to help create this illusion. The illusion created is distance. No one step of the systematic approach creates depth. It is achieved through the entire process (fig 2-7). The following paragraphs give a brief introduction to perspective constructions. (1) Perspective drawing creates the illusion of distance through the fact that all lines going away from the observer appear to come together at some distant points. For example, to a person looking down a long stretch of railroad tracks, the tracks will...
In Perspective Drawing You Draw What You See, Not Your Idea or Mental Image of the Subject, 15 Reality and Appearance Example United Nations Buildings from Different Viewpoints, 16 Reality and Appearance Example Park Bench from Different Viewpoints, 17 Chapter 3 HOW WE SEE FOR PERSPECTIVE DRAWING 18
This handy guide provides numerous insights and shortcuts to drawing and sketching effectively. Describing mandatory skills for beginning and advanced students, the text covers such subjects as diminution, foreshortening, convergence, shade and shadow, and other visual principles of perspective drawing.
In the three demonstrations that follow. notice that the artist used tone rather than line in rendering the steps. In a smudgy way, he attempted to convey the depth of the eye in the socket, the roundness of the lid, and the dark presence of the pupil. To suggest sparkling eyes, try a black carbon pencil on a middle-tone gray pastel paper. He next used white pencil to develop the planes further and to establish the whiteness of the cornea. He also indicated which would be the lightest areas (such as the corner of the eyelid) and which the darkest (in this case, the pupil). In the final stages, he strengthened the values, darker or lighter, and then added details and highlights.
Tracing a round object, such as a glass or jar, or using a circle template or stencil, lightly draw a circle with a mechanical pencil and a very light touch. Determine where the light is coming from. With Dark Umber and a very sharp point, apply the cast shadow opposite the light source, here, below the circle on the lower left, indicating the light is coming from the right side. With a very sharp point, apply the shadow edge, leaving a small edge of reflected light along the bottom of the circle. Be sure to apply the pencil lightly so the lines are not obvious. Use curved lines to replicate the shape and form of the sphere. Straight pencil lines would represent a flat object.
The ellipses are the most critical aspect of this drawing. Before adding any colored pencil, work on the ellipses with a mechanical pencil until they appear correct. It is much better to make corrections with regular graphite than colored pencil because graphite erases much easier.
Your aim now with the pen is to load it with ink. Dip it into the ink, and in the first instance make some practice marks on another piece of paper until you achieve the right flow of ink from the pen to create a steady, even flowing line. Now you can begin to draw the line over the top of your pencil drawing, replicating the marks you have made with the pencil. Over the top of
Use the grid method to create an accurate line drawing of the reference photo. When you are happy with your sketch, carefully remove your grid with a kneaded eraser. Try to be as accurate as possible, because the entire outcome of your portrait hinges on this first step.
With a mechanical pencil, lightly apply the horizon line, where the water and sky meet, about a third of the way down your paper. Draw a very light circle where the sun will be, and lightly sketch in the main waves. Using the layered approach, apply Canary Yellow evenly across the top of the horizon, making sure there are no noticeable pencil lines. Do not go over the pencil drawing of the circle that represents the sun. The graphite will darken and you will not be able to erase it. Place Canary Yellow all around the circle, then remove the graphite with your kneaded eraser, creating the white spot. Add Canary Yellow all the way into the water directly under the sun. This is where the sunlight reflection will be.
For reasons that are still unclear, Pure Contour Drawing is one of the key exercises in learning to draw. But it's a paradox Pure Contour Drawing, which doesn't produce a good drawing (in students' estimations), is the best exercise for effectively and efficiently causing students later to achieve good drawing. Even more important, though, this is the exercise that revives our childhood wonder and the sense of beauty found in ordinary things. In regarding a hand, for example, the nails, the wrinkles and creases are details and the hand itself is the whole configuration. This division of labor works fine in ordinary life. In drawing a hand, however, one must give equal attention visual atten-tion to both the configuration and the details and how they fit together into the whole. Pure Contour Drawing may function as a sort of shock treatment for the brain, forcing it to do things differently. Pure Contour Drawing, I believe, causes L-mode to drop out, perhaps, as I mentioned before,...
In this section, we are going to introduce you to a series of projects and exercises that will give you a practical introduction to using the range of hard pencils. As we have previously said, the hard pencil makes a fine precise line. What we shall show you is how that line can be employed to demonstrate your ideas, expressions and observations. further our understanding of how to build a composition the type of elements a composition can contain (for example, harmony, balance, rhythm and movement), how these elements alter the eye's ability to travel over and into the surface of the picture, and how we read the picture in a more representative way. Finally, we explain the nature of diagrammatic and perspective drawings both from theoretical and observational approaches. We will show you how to develop these methods for use in your particular approach to drawing and to expand upon them whenever you feel it is appropriate. similar and lie within a close range. The fineness and...
Unlike the hard pencil, the soft pencil and graphite are designed to make a much heavier mark and to create a tonal range -from a very dense black through to white. The soft pencil and graphite enable you to do this quickly and efficiently. The pencil will also allow you to describe shape and form, but you must keep the lead sharpened. A useful material that can enhance the use of the soft pencil is the eraser, and the two work very well together to create expressive effects. Whereas when used with the hard pencil the eraser is associated solely with the elimination of mistakes, as a complementary tool to soft pencils and charcoal its contribution is entirely positive. Different effects can be produced with soft pencils and graphite if you vary the amount of pressure you use. Pressure enables you to activate the surface of the picture plane, either by using tone or weight of mark. Look at these examples of creating tonal gradation and then experiment yourself. As well as varying the...
The contour drawing while looking should be done with the same focus on seeing the lines, but you get to follow your drawing hand by looking. Stay focused on what you see. Looking while you're doing the blind contour drawing is just the chance Old Lefty needs to come back in and try to tell you what you're doing wrong. The point here is to do a drawing that has nothing to do with anything except seeing the lines. We've provided a set of sample contour drawings of objects done while looking. We've provided a set of sample contour drawings of objects done while looking.
Hard pencils are mostly appropriate for drawings requiring accuracy. As we have pointed out previously, such drawings are usually done by engineers, industrial designers, graphic designers and architects. The final drawings they produce have to be to scale and precise so that other people, such as craftsmen, can follow the instructions to construct or make the designed object. These drawings come in a number of different types of perspective, or parallel projection systems, ranging from flat orthographic plan or elevation drawings to 3D perspective illustrations.
I've called the method of the next exercise Pure Contour Drawing, and your left hemisphere is probably not going to enjoy it. Introduced by a revered art teacher, Kimon Nicolaides, in his 1941 book, The Natural Way to Draw, the method has been widely used by art teachers. I believe that our new knowledge about how the brain divides its workload provides a conceptual basis for understanding why Pure Contour Drawing is effective as a teaching method. At the time of writing his book, Nicolaides apparently felt that the reason the contour method improved students' drawing was that it caused students to use both senses of sight and touch. Nicolaides recommended that students imagine that they were touching the form as they drew. I suggest an alternate possibility L-mode rejects the meticulous, complex perceptions of spatial, relational information, thus allowing access to R-mode processing. In short, Pure Contour Drawing doesn't suit the left brain's style. It suits the style of the right...
The Complete Book of Drawing Techniques is intended for artists who are looking to expand their knowledge and understanding of materials and the wide range of available media. It will teach them about the characteristics of these media and materials and how to use them to get the required effect. With a unique combination of instruction and practice the book provides examples of the type of mark-making each medium produces. A range of projects then demonstrates effective ways of working with them. By the end of the book every budding artist will have enough knowledge and confidence to utilize the techniques they have learnt in a broad range of compositions of their own choosing.
The soft pencil has more versatility for creating tone and textures than the hard pencil. Soft pencils are denoted by the letter B. The HB pencil is a mixture of hard and soft and is the pivotal pencil between the two extremes. The range of soft pencils available consists of HB, B, 2B, 3B, 4B, 5B, 6B, 7B, 8B and 9B (the softest). texture, cross-hatching or even just simple line. Pencils at the softest end of the range can be used to produce blocks of tone. A graphite stick is generally more useful for this type of work and for producing larger areas of tone For a small drawing - up to A3 size - a soft pencil is more appropriate. The only soft pencil suitable for refined work requiring great precision - essentially the preserve of the hard pencil - is the fine clutch pencil. Drawing in soft pencil of a still life using observed directional light. Drawing in soft pencil of a still life using observed directional light.
Other graphite pencils encased in wood, which will surprise you with their versatility, are the office or school pencils. The range may not be as great as the hard or soft artist's pencils, but you can ac encased graphite pencils, you'll find various degrees of thin leads that fit into a mechanical pencil holder. You will also find Vi-inch leads that have a plastic or metal holder. They are great for sketching outdoors. Finally, there are the woodless drawing pencils made of graphite with a protective coating. They can be sharpened for fine lines or flattened for broad strokes, and they are available in the soft B category. A. Charcoal pencil, hard B. Charcoal pencil, soft C. Wrapped charcoal pencil D. Mechanical pencil for ' 4-inch charcoal sticks A. Charcoal pencil, hard B. Charcoal pencil, soft C. Wrapped charcoal pencil D. Mechanical pencil for ' 4-inch charcoal sticks
Hard pencil marks have very little variation in the range of mark making. They only usually vary through a linear progression. Tone is usually made from a build up of crosshatch effects. Hard pencils are denoted by the letter H. As with soft pencils, they come in a range, comprising HB, H, 2H, 3H, 4H, 5H, 6H, 7H, 8H and 9H (the hardest). These pencils are mainly for use by designers, architects and people who produce precise technical diagrammatic drawings for which a fine, accurate line is essential, such as perspective or other projection drawings. Although the marks made with hard pencil show very little variation it can be used in an expressive manner. As with soft pencil, tone can be built using a cross-hatching system, although the
Step 2, Over the guidelines of Slep ln the artist constructs the actual shape of the head and hair. He defines the curves of the cheeks, the squarish shapes of the jaw, and the rounded chin. With long, curving lines, he draws the sweep of the hair that surrounds the entire head and neck. A few slanted lines suggest the collar, The features are hung on the horizontal guidelines within the egg. Notice that he indicates not only the eyes, but also the inside corners of the eye sockets on either side of the nose. The lines in Steps I and 2 are executed with the sharp corner of the rectangular stick of chalk. As one corner wears down, the artist turns the chalk in his hand and uses the next corner. The corners stay sharp just long enough to exccutc the preliminary line drawing. Slender strokes. A hard or medium charcoal pencil can be sharpened to a fairly precise point to make crisp strokes. The tones of the sitter's hair, forehead, and eyes are built up with clusters of parallel strokes...
Most of the earliest forms of drawing known to us in history, like those of the child we were discussing in the last chapter, are largely in the nature of outline drawings. This is a remarkable fact considering the somewhat remote relation lines have to the complete phenomena of vision. Outlines can only be said to exist in appearances as the boundaries of masses. But even here a line seems a poor thing from the visual point of view as the boundaries are not always clearly defined, but are continually merging into the surrounding mass and losing themselves to be caught up again later on and defined once more. Its relationship with visual appearances is not sufficient to justify the instinct for line drawing. It comes, I think, as has already been said, from the sense of touch. When an object is felt there is no merging in the surrounding mass, but a firm definition of its boundary, which the mind instinctively conceives as a line. There is a more direct appeal to the imagination in...
This subcourse describes the tools and drawing surfaces used in realistic drawing. It identifies and defines the principles of realistic drawing, and the media and techniques used to render subjects accurately. This subcourse is divided into three lessons describing tools and drawing surfaces, principles of realistic drawing, and media and techniques with each lesson corresponding to an objective as indicated in the following pages. Lesson 2 PRINCIPLES OF REALISTIC DRAWING TASK Identify and define the principles of realistic drawing and their interrelationships.
Deepen the colors and patterns of the drawing by building all up the previous colors. Use Black to create the illusion of ripples and waves using pencil strokes that mimic the movement of water. In the distance, closer to the horizon line, the lines are straighter across and close together. As the waves get closer to the foreground, the patterns become more arched and pronounced. Go back and forth with the pencil lines to help create the patterns of water. Reapply the lighter colors of Canary Yellow and Orange until you are happy with the way it looks.
The pencil type is solid graphite of about the same thickness as an ordinary pencil. The thin film coating on the outside edge peels back to reveal the graphite. The stick is a much thicker piece of graphite which, like a pastel, has a simple paper covering that can be removed as necessary. It is a very versatile fine art drawing implement. Graphite pencil or stick.
Practice drawing rounded objects Now that you've completed a few step-by-step exercises, try some drawings on your own using your acetate grid. To become proficient in colored pencil drawing, it is important to learn the patience required for layering color. These illustrations combine many of the drawing elements we reviewed on the previous pages. The overall shape is still a sphere. Follow the shapes of light and shadow to recreate common objects such as these lemons, pear and apple. Have fun and remember that good drawing takes time Once you have mastered the basic techniques of drawing with colored pencil, you can create more complicated drawings. This drawing shows what is possible when you know how to draw a pear. It is amazing to me how brilliant and realistic colored pencil can be. Here is another way to use the skills you just learned. Simply change the colors, and you can change the entire look A simple apple can make a very dramatic drawing. A tree limb or trunk is also a...
After doing so many drawings with straight lines, you can probably do them now with ease and confidence. They'll become still easier as you continue with future projects. But if you're to draw objects based on the cylinder, the cone, or the sphere, you must also practice drawing the curved lines that form them.
Create the table's wood grain look, keeping in mind the perspective of the pencil lines. Build the wood color with Burnt Ochre, and the wood grain with Dark Brown. Render the cast shadow on the right with Black Raspberry. Practice drawing the different types of metal surfaces in this chapter. Each one is very different from the other, depending on its surface, color and surroundings. Practice Drawing Shiny, Polished Metals
Clouds and atmosphere always move side to side, not up and down. All pencil lines associated with a sky should be placed horizontally. Always study your subject or reference photo and note the direction of the sunlight. In the example at right, the sunshine is centrally located and peeks through the clouds a little off center and to the right. It streaks through the sky in a horizontal fashion. This sky is a beautiful example of how intense the sky can be when drawn in colored pencil. Use the white of the paper to create contrast with bright, sunlit areas. See how the rays of light overlap the dark clouds below Burnish the colors surrounding the white paper to create this intense separation.
Practice should result in a sound knowledge of (1.) the actual form and structure of scenes and objects, and (2.) how these objects and scenes change appearance from different viewpoints and under different lighting conditions. Essentially, perspective drawing deals with this appearance of things, L e., with how three-dimensional reality looks and how it is best drawn on two-dimensional surfaces such as a canvas, sketch pad, or illustration board. It might be worth noting, however, that all pictures are a form of abstraction or symbolism. Perspective drawing neither claims nor is able to simulate what the human eye sees. Our eyes constantly move about, change focus, see depth and color, change according to light intensity and see things with time and therefore motion. Drawings are static, flat and of a limited size. Perspective drawing is nevertheless concerned with achieving a sense of space, of depth and of the third dimension, within the limits of the flat drawing surface. There...
The constructed perspective drawing is dominated by pure theory the observed perspective drawing is from one view point. Perspective is a system of drawing that shows the illusion of three-dimensional objects in a picture space. To produce a good perspective drawing one has to abide by a certain set of rules. To break these rules is to undo the illusion. There are two common uses for perspective. One is a perspective drawing constructed from our imagination and creative thoughts the other is constructed from an understanding of planal recession and form.
Though modified In some way, each of these objects Is based on the sphere. Notice the light pencil line through the center of each object. This line help&d the artist establish the symmetry of the left and right sides of the objects. Though modified In some way, each of these objects Is based on the sphere. Notice the light pencil line through the center of each object. This line help&d the artist establish the symmetry of the left and right sides of the objects.
Start this drawing by drawing the composition first with pencil. That way, if you make any mistakes you can rectify them by rubbing them out. To establish the composition or the drawing on the paper, use your previous learning. For example, use the window mount to help you frame your picture. As you look through the window on the world move it about to establish a composition that you are happy with. Then draw what you see through the window on to your paper, placing and mapping the objects in the scene relative to the proportions of the paper. The drawing on the paper should mirror exactly what is seen through the window mount but on a lager scale (see the example of the rough pencil sketch). Now you have established your composition you can begin to draw over the pencil lines with a felt tip pen that is best for making lines. With this pen one can also imply the idea of texture, as shown in the drawing on the doors of the warehouses. One can also make tonal areas with this pen. In...
Drawing realistically means drawing accurately. Whatever proportions your box may have, check the relationship between one side and the other. Notice that in the box at left, its length is about twice its width. The three boxes are seen at three different eye levels. Draw your box in the three different positions shown at left. Use any type of pencil to do the exercises in this section a regular office pencil will do. It won't matter at all either if your box isn't the same shape as the box pictured here. The main thing is for you to be aware of the object's planes as you raise it or lower it above or below your level of vision.
In views of real life, and therefore in realistic pictures, the eye level (horizon line) is rarely visible, and vanishing points virtually never are. Yet the full significance of these concepts must be clearly understood. Working with an awareness of them and actually sketching them in temporarily are perspective drawing prerequisites.
Continue to build the color of the skin tone. Use quick strokes with Black to create the eyebrows and eyelashes, tapering the pencil stroke at the end. Study the length and direction of the different types of hairs, and practice drawing them on a separate piece of paper. It requires a very short, quick stroke to make the line taper at the end. Keep a very sharp point on your pencil, especially for the short, sparse lower lashes. You saw in the previous exercise how important the pencil line is to creating eyelashes and eyebrows. It is the same with drawing hair. The pencil lines represent the length of the hair, and they must be drawn in accordingly. Study these close-up examples. You can see how they were created by applying different types of pencil strokes. To create long hair, make long, quick strokes in the direction that the hair grows. Strive to taper your pencil lines at the end of each strand. Because hair is multi-colored, work from light to dark as you are adding the tones...
Use what you've learned about texture, layering and burnishing to capture your favorite animals in colored pencil. Combine Many Drawing Techniques to Create Furry Animals The key to drawing realistic fur is to render it in multiple layers. Animal fur, no matter what type, is quite dense. To make it look believable, you must build it up, layer after layer, using many pencil strokes. Whether the fur is short or long, always pull your strokes the direction the fur is going.
It is in the subtle gradations of layered tonal effects that colored pencils excel. The demonstration subject here is a flower a single peony. The artist wanted the flower to emerge from its foliage background. To do this she employed a finely grained and non-directional tonal technique. 1. The artist used a few thumbnail roughs to work out the composition's basic color scheme a split-complementary of green, red-orange, and red-violet. This initial color scheme was, of course, tentatively dependent on what was needed later. The artist lightly blocked in the peony on a medium-grained drawing paper with an HB graphite pencil. The complex petals were only sketchily suggested at this point, and because its stem seemed too spindly to support the flower's head, a foreground leaf was added to lend visual strength. Background foliage was not laid in with graphite, but was developed as the drawing progressed. Evaluation The artist paused to objectively evaluate her drawing's progress. She felt...
Graphite pencil sizes and grades Figure 1-1. Graphite pencil sizes and grades (a) Hardness grades are printed on the pencils, e.g., a very soft graphite pencil is the 6B which produces the darkest, boldest line. The hardest is the 9H which produces a lighter line. Be careful when trying to make lighter tones with a soft pencil. You may create an unwanted grainy effect. However, you can take advantage of a textured effect if you need it (fig 1-3 and fig 1-10). Graphite reflects light and, therefore, appears shiny. 2. Paper used for drawings may be smooth or rough textured (toothed). A good drawing paper with a rough surface bites and holds graphite better. A rough surface will give high contrast to pencil drawings. A firm, smooth finish will result in low pencil contrast. Make ink drawings on smooth, firm-finished paper or cardstock. Apply washes to a thick, absorbent water color paper surface. Be careful not to apply too much wash or the paper will buckle. 4. Board should...
Create the illusion of a cone by the use of front light shading with a fine felt tipped pen and correction fluid. As with the other two solids draw the outline with pencil first very lightly and place the back line in. The nearest point of the cone will be the lightest area and as the surface of the cone gradually goes back the tone will become darker. In this drawing I have used correction fluid to make the lighter area on the drawing appear even lighter. The dark areas have been created by using a series of lines that follow the curve of the form. These lines become denser and darker as they begin to reach the outside edge of the form. Artists who have been specially trained often create drawings with these pens. These people are usually architects who have studied the subject at university. I am
The artist found nothing particularly magical about the shape of this battered, old wooden wheelbarrow, but he liked the very clear textures of the grain in the planks of wood. He decided that this grain would be just as effective depicted in pencil as it would be in paint, so he made two careful, studied pencil drawings. The grain you see here is simply the result of study and carofully weighted values. This fine detail is easy to portray when you have an array of pencil drawing techniques that allow you to vary the width and weight of each stroke at will. Take your time to draw a subject like this in as great detail as you can. The perspective is quite simple, and with care, it is difficult not to produce a really satisfying drawing.
If you try holding your implement in experimental and unorthodox ways you will produce drawings that have a variety of expressive marks and various tensions within those marks. You will widen your approach to mark making, whether with a pencil or any other drawing implement, and also open up your attitude towards drawing techniques.
To break off suddenly in the middle of a work on drawing, in the middle of a chapter mainly consecrated up to now to the detailed examination of a pen drawing by Rembrandt of a female nude, thus to break off and enter into an examination of architecture, more especially ogival, may, at first sight, seem to be the height of inconsequence and incoherence. None the less I am doing it after mature reflection, and with a clearly defined thesis in view I am doing it here because I can conceive of no better moment for developing a thesis which, far from being a side issue of the present gospel, is
In Other Words The Observer Simply Points In The Same Direction As The Lines In Order To Find Their Vanishing Point
The observer's viewpoint and cone of vision, his distance from a subject, and the apparent direction of the subject's lines are the principal determinants of how things appear in real life and therefore in perspective drawing. As these factors change, so will the picture. This is the key to any system of perspective drawing. Becoming aware of it and understanding it will strengthen your powers of visualization and observation.
Sketch the shape of the trunk and limbs with a mechanical pencil. Don't forget to include the large tree knots. With heavy, vertical pencil lines, apply the texture of the tree bark. Start with Sienna Brown first, and then layer on Dark Umber. A tree limb or trunk is also a cylinder, just with a lot of texture. Use this exercise to practice drawing the cylindrical shape of a tree. Even though the surface is irregular and textured, the basic form is still a cylinder with the effects of light and dark creating the roundness.
Fit exactly between the two converging lines to give us the correct perspective. One can now do the same to the other side of the building, using the same process. However, you will notice that the perspective point on this occasion goes off the other side of the picture. Do not worry about this - it happens in most perspective drawings. In this detail we have extended the drawing perspectivally forward to draw the row of houses in the foreground. This has been achieved by extending the perspective lines that come from the vanishing point on the horizon line, and then placing the vertical line in to denote the edge of the building.
Simply put, the key to creating convincing wood textures is patience with creating multiple layers of various colors. It is very important to follow the direction of the grain when drawing wood. Wood usually has a very distinct pattern to it, and the pencil lines should replicate the design. Notice that in the illustration of the door, the wood grain is vertical. In the illustration of the lizard, the wood grain is horizontal.
Why this is so is explained in this top view. Let's divide the same face in two, using different spacings. From the lowest corner tick off two units of 1 2 each, two of 1 and two of 2 . Now, connect each second tick to the far corner (3 lines shown dotted). Then, from the first ticks, draw lines parallel to these. Note that the second lines all intersect at the midpoint of the face. Therefore any of these spacings would work even though each resulting set of parallel-horizontal lines would have it own (special) vanishing point (see across page).
Create the look of tree bark with harsh, heavy pencil lines. It is exactly like the examples on pages 45 and 67. Overlap colors to give the illusion of texture. Add some Goldenrod for a warm color, then continue to build texture with Dark Brown and Black. Burnish in some White for the highlights. There clearly were not enough pages in this book, because I could go on and on and on. But, as they say, all good things must come to an end While this may be the end of another Lee Hammond book, it should not be the end of your practice. The projects in this book are just the beginning for you. Continue enjoying the wonderful world of colored pencil. Scour magazines, books and most of all, your own photo albums for interesting subjects to draw and create amazing compositions using your trusty viewfinders. You just never know when something will inspire you
Deepen all the colors and add Cloud Blue to the tabletop using horizontal pencil strokes. To make the background stand out more against the glasses, add a touch of Clay Rose over the Lilac already applied. Practice Drawing Asymmetrical Objects Practice Drawing Asymmetrical Objects
From the belief that everything should be stated in total on the paper. As an exercise, practice drawing in values alone, so that you suggest edges by changing light and value, rather than with line only (the value exercise suggestions on page 12 are a good place to start). If your drawing or painting suffers from tightening-up, the best remedy is to allocate yourself only a short time to work. That way you don't have time to overwork certain passages with excessive detail, and you're forced to make quick decisions.
When learning perspective, start with a simple one-point perspective drawing, such as this living room scene. In the working drawing of step 1, notice how everything in the room meets at a single point in the center of the drawing. The arms of the couch, the edges of the coffee table and even the books underneath lead to this one point.
A spray applied to pencil drawings to prevent the artwork from smudging. Frisket. A sheet of paper used as a shield to create an even edge or a clean margin beside a set of pencil lines. Mechanical pencil. A pencil consisting of a thin stick of graphite encased by a holder similar to a pen. Mechanical pencils need no sharpening. Camera, 57 Carbon pencils, 8, 13 Cast shadow, 52 Cat face, 70-71 side view, 72-73 Center point, 44-45 Charcoal pencils, 8, 13 Chiaroscuro, 20-21. See also Black-and-white sketch Clouds, 55 Colored pencils, 8 Composition, 86-90 Continuous line sketch. See Contour sketch Contour drawing, 25 Contour sketch,14, 22-23 Contrast, 49, 100-04 Cows, 76 Craft knife, 9, 12 Cropping, 89 Garden scene, 96-97 Graphite pencils, 8 Grass, 55 Grid, 87 Masking tape, 10 Materials, 7-13 Mechanical pencils, 8 Mirror, 12-13, 106 Mood, 33
One problem here is the unity of the design as well as the correctness of the actual figure drawing, since the arms stretch away to a secondary object. The artist tried to counter the oblique line of the arms with downward, linear pencil strokes he didn't want the strokes to be spaced too evenly, which would give them a machine-made effect, as in the shirt. He would have preferred developing the same loose feeling all over the face as in the arm, but then he wouldn't have been able to explicitly designate all the character planes. 1. The artist started this pencil sketch by carefully mapping out the portrait's tonal areas. He used a 4H pencil and kept the lines lighter than they are in this reproduction, since these had to be darkened for clarity. 3. Here the artist made the window structure heavier by doing this he felt he'd added an emotional solidity to the picture, and he liked the silhouette created by the white hair against the window. He shaded all of the face heavier with a...
Use a white vinyl eraser to remove hard-to-erase pencil lines. White vinyl erasers are more abrasive than kneaded erasers but will not stain the paper, as some colored erasers often do. White vinyl erasers leave behind strings rather than crumbs, making cleanup easy. Never use the eraser at the end of a pencil. It may smear pencil lines and stain the paper.
Fill in the center of the flower with Canary Yellow using circular pencil strokes. Once the Canary Yellow layer is complete, overlap it with Limepeel on the upper side of the flower's center. Along the left side, overlap the Canary Yellow with Magenta. This will accentuate the center of the flower.
To see how using colored pencils with a solvent differs from using them dry. compare these two similar quick sketches. Bet Borgeson planned to draw the lily on the left, using colored pencils as a dry medium. She planned to paint its twin-in-reverse on the right, using colored pencils as a wet medium. 1. The beginning for both sketches was the same, despite the artist's plan to draw one and paint the other. She used a sheet of two-ply white Strathmore bristol for her paper surface. Colored and toned papers do not work well with colored pencils as a wet medium, since the solvent creates a dark trail that is confusing to work with. She handled the lily on the right a little differently Colored pencil was tonally applied where she wanted. But this was done rapidly and loosely. Much less pigment is needed when water is to be brushed into it. In the long horizontal body of the lily, for example, two Caran D'Ache pencil colors a red-orange 070 and a yellow-orange 030 were applied for the...
Color also has a profound effect on our emotions and on how we perceive spatially. To better understand how this pertains to drawing with colored pencils, consider what color can offer a drawing's mood and structure As a practical experiment, make a few small thumbnail drawings with your colored pencils. Use as few drawn clues as possible to suggest mood, except those of color its placement and its quantity. Color also can work its effects on a drawing's structure, which refers to all the elements in a drawing that contribute to the illusions of form and space. You will find as you work with colored pencils that color alone can build some of structure's illusions. It was, incidentally, to work with this premise that the colorist Paul C zanne devoted much of his painting life. Finally, perhaps the single most important thing to know for gaining ade-ptness at mixing colors as well as for sharpening an eye for color is that all colors have equal status in art. None is by definition...
One of those new mechanical pencils, with HB or B lead in it. A kneaded eraser. A ruler. 8. If you are happy with the pencil drawing, you can add more to it by looking back at your subject, but make sure that you draw relative to things that you see no fudging or filling in just to fill in. If you can see something to add, fine, otherwise leave it.
Make a photocopy of the drawing you intend to use and establish a color scheme with colored pencils. Keep it fairly simple. 4. You can transfer your drawing to a cabinet or drawer front by blackening the back of a copy of the drawing with your softest pencil and then taping it carefully and drawing over your drawing lines. The soft pencil acts like carbon paper (remember carbon paper ) and your outline is there on the surface, ready to paint. This will work for several passes, and then you might have to reapply the pencil or finish with another copy of your drawing.
The best is 140-lb. hot-press watercolor paper, and 90 lb. is fine for sketches. If you foresee adding water to the water-soluble pencil sketch, however, the heavier paper will work better. You will find that you can very naturally grab a handful of colored pencils and start in on a simple arrangement.
COLORED PENCILS ARE WONDERFUL TOOLS for creating realistic drawings Lee Hammond, popular instructor and North Light author of more than twenty instructional books on drawing and painting, is here to show you how. Now you can learn to draw lifelike flowers, buildings, animals and people in vivid color. Join Lee as she shares her easy-to-follow teaching methods to help you master colored pencil, from basic shapes and everyday objects to your own pets, friends and family members. You can do it
Graphite pencil Drawing board Drawing paper Kneaded eraser Draw weathered wood boards with coarse pencil strokes flowing in similar directions to show the grain. The spaces underneath and between the boards are dark to suggest depth. Draw weathered wood boards with coarse pencil strokes flowing in similar directions to show the grain. The spaces underneath and between the boards are dark to suggest depth.
To finish the drawing, add white whiskers and small hairs with a White pencil. It is important to have a sharp point, but also to use firm, quick strokes. Make sure to taper the pencil lines at the end to create the realistic look of animal hair. It looks unnatural when a pencil line is the same width from beginning to end.
With the 4H pencil, add value and form to the apples with light lines that follow their contours. Use uniform pencil strokes to make the surfaces look smooth. Add the Darker Values of the Bananas and Finish With Shadows and Background With the HB pencil, shade the darker areas of the bananas. Use a 4B pencil to add shadows under the apples and bananas, with the darkest part closest to the fruit. Add the background value with a 4H pencil, using uniform pencil strokes. Make the apples slightly darker with a 4H pencil. Use the value scale to check your work and make any necessary adjustments. Sign and date your drawing.
Van Gogh had to drag his perspective contraption out into the fields to use it. You can use the window of your car and sit there, coffee for company, and draw right on the car window. Of course, you can't drive everywhere that you would like to be in order to draw, but you can use the car window as a tool to learn to draw well enough so that, in time, you won't need a tool at all. Then you can go anywhere that your legs will carry you. Remember, NEVER sit in your car with the motor running and the windows closed make sure the engine is off fumes and pollution are duel dangers, to you, and to the environment You had practice drawing with a plastic picture plane to see the three-dimensional space in a still life condensed onto the two-dimensional surface of the plastic. Your patio or sliding glass door can be used as a big picture plane through which you can see three-dimensional space condensed on the surface of the glass, and you can draw it right there for fun or to see how things in...
Practice drawing animal skeletons wherever you find them. Take a trip to the local natural history museum, if need be, or copy them out of natural science books and magazines. Skeletons can really help you understand the foundation of a living creature's form, as well as its natural actions and gestures.
Bleach wash drawings Some very interesting results can be achieved by using fountain pen ink. You must first stretch the paper on which you are about to do the drawing, then cover the whole surface with a liberal coating of ink. Allow this to dry. You can now paint different solutions of bleach onto this surface. An important point to remember is that the stronger the bleach the lighter the areas will become. Before embarking on this technique, you should make some practice drawings to experience the unusual effect first-hand. For examples of this type of drawing, see page 199. WARNING Please remember the health and safety aspects when using chemicals always read and follow the guidelines for use. Pen, brush and ink drawings For this type of drawing you should first draw the composition out very lightly with pencil. Make the appropriate marks to describe the scene and then correct any mistakes. If you are happy with this initial drawing, go over these marks using your dip pen. Always...
It is very important to learn to draw things as you see them realistically. That is, you must reproduce the dimensions and proportions of a given subject. To render a faithful, realistic drawing, you must be able to observe the basic structure of an object, regardless of how complex and obscured by detail it may be. You must train not only
Perspective is a set of rules to explain how to draw objects in space and make adjustments for the difference between what the eye sees and the mind knows, or thinks it knows. For example, the mind knows that a cube has six equal sides, but when a cube is seen in space, the sides seen at an angle seem to diminish as they recede.
Engraver and to the photographic process-block maker a refined study of values spells extra time, trouble, and expense. The nearer the approach to diagrammatic representation, the cheaper will be the reproduction and the clearer the result in rapid printing. Hence the greater number of ' artists 5 aim at some artificial scheme of values which shall prove acceptable, usually by its tidiness of presentation, and the public eye in England, already too inclined to worship tidiness, is readily educated to demand such meretricious finish everywhere. The matter becomes a practical one, and ceases to be purely aesthetic all unconsciously the average Anglo-Saxon feels himself on safer ground. True, great masters simplify a scheme of values, but they do it in certain subtle ways, and I find in practice that I am always obliged to employ the more expensive process-block when in this, or another book, I wish to reproduce their work that of a modern pen draughtsman would be reproducible by a...
Is only acceptable, even to us, within certain narrow limits of application. Though the choice of the distance from which the artist regards his subject, and consequently the distance between the point from which the picture should be looked at and the canvas (which two lengths are the same when reduced to the same scale), must be left to the artist as forming important parts of his personal aesthetic and compositional intentions, still we may say that in ordinary cases it is not possible visually to take in an object unless we are at from two and a half to three times the length of its greatest dimension from it. That is to say, in order to draw a standing human figure, with the intention of giving a natural air to our work, we should place ourselves at some five or six yards distance from it. Having by exercise of judgement fixed the point d (Fig. 30) we draw the line zd. If we now draw lines parallel to yz through all the points of intersection between zd and our perspective...
Mechanical pencils in various hardnesses and leads Drawing pencils in various hardnesses Charcoal pencils, and soft-charcoal sticks and paper stomps Spray fixative Conte crayons Colored pencils and water-soluble pencils Oil pastels and crayons Colored markers Pastel pencils and soft pastels Watercolors, gouache, and acrylic paints Water-based crayons
Use your mechanical pencil to lightly sketch in the foreground shapes to use as a guide. Fill in the largest shapes first, such as the trunk of the tree and the shoreline. With Black and a very sharp point on your pencil, apply the palm leaves, the small bush to the right of the tree, and the blades of grass. If you haven't drawn a palm tree before, I would suggest practicing first on a separate sheet of paper.
In the next chapter, we will look at getting things to look a little more full of volume and detail. We will look at volume, weight, light, and shadow, and how to draw them by adding a bit of tone to your line drawing. Detail and still more detail will give your work the complexity that makes it special.
Use circles and ellipses to draw space into things right from the start. This will help in making sure that you have left enough room for things. A circle in space is a sphere, or a ball. An ellipse is space is an ellipsoid, rather like a rounded-off cylinder. Practice drawing them as a warm-up and practice seeing them in the objects as you draw in the basic shapes.
The accompanying reproduction is one of a well-known pen-drawing by Leonardo. In it the point of sight is at the head of the central rearing horse to this point converge all the lines which in reality are perpendicular to the picture plane. Lay a ruler over the principal lines and verify this fact. All the rest of the drawing seems, however, to have been drawn in freely. Some of the edges of the steps vanish to the point of sight, others do not. This is of course a derogation from the laws of perspective, but I very much doubt whether the drawing loses in quality on account of it. On the contrary, I am inclined to think that a certain agreeable flexibility, which would otherwise be missing, results in the general effect. The various arches would also seem to be intuitively drawn and indeed here is my chief reason for reproducing the study. In text-books which treat of perspective we are told to enclose a circular or other curved form within a suitable rectangular or polygonal figure,...
Focus on the light and dark contrasts when capturing wet subjects in colored pencil. Reflections are always vertical and directly below an object. When drawing an entire scene, work from back to front to account for objects overlapping. Clouds and atmosphere always move side to side, so all pencil lines associated with them should be horizontal.
Lightly draw the shape of the apple with a mechanical pencil. With Canary Yellow and firm pressure, fill in the entire apple, excluding the highlight areas. These spots should be left as the white of the paper. With Scarlet Lake, begin adding red tones to the shadow areas of the apple. Be sure to use curved pencil lines to help create the illusion of roundness. The apple skin has a lot of streaks, and these curved lines help create them. Use Tuscan Red to begin the stem and the shadow area around it.
Mixing color with colored pencils is a quick, almost instant procedure that requires very little equipment. Artists who work with these pencils often report experiencing an intensity of concentration a total absorption which takes them by surprise. The medium's speed and directness of handling usually spurs these colorists on to further experimentation, which is excellent, since an active pursuit of color often brings fresh and unfamiliar results. This is a good time to think about starting a personal workbook for your colored pencil drawings, if you don't have one already. This book should be separate from your regular pencil workbook. The most useful kind for your colored pencil drawings is one with pages of a medium-grained surface very similar to that of your everyday drawing paper. For example, the Strath-more 400 Series drawing paper is inexpensive and comes in a 5 2 x 8' notebook, and also in small spiral-bound tablets. Either version would make a good workbook. Color mixing is...
In order to create realistic drawings, you must be able to draw three-dimensional forms and understand how light affects those forms. There are five elements of shading that can be found in every three-dimensional shape. Practice creating these different tones. Once you've mastered them, you can draw just about anything.
Willow charcoal or vine charcoal is a very fluid drawing medium and is much freer and more open in its application than pencil. It also lends itself to larger, broader drawing than the type of graphic drawings one associates with pencil. Examples of marks made by the willow charcoal are as follows.
Workable fixative is undetectable when applied. Though you can continue drawing with graphite and charcoal once the spray has been applied, you cannot with colored pencil. The wax in Prismacolor pencils actually rises to the surface, making the colors appear cloudy and dull. Workable fixative behaves as a resist, stopping this blooming effect and making the colors true again.
As a drawing technique and process we can expand and use frottage as a tool to express our ideas and it has been used by many artists particularly in the twentieth century for this very purpose. No less an artist than Max Ernst used this process to great effect in the early part of the last century.
There are the carefully drawn structures of the buds and the stems compared to freer drawing at the top of the buds where the flowers are trying to appear and some leaf formation around the neck of the buds. This contrast in the drawing techniques makes for a more visually exciting type of drawing.
This breed has a coat of rough, wiry hair with a softer, shorter undercoat, and a topknot of lighter, finer-textured hair. The artist bunched little groups of fur by using masses of curved pencil strokes for each, then proceeded to form other clumps adjoining these, but running, in another direction. He darkened the left front and hind legs to set them back in perspective. There is not a hard edge to be seen in any of the contours they were all achieved with strokes pointing away from the body. In rendering a dog as shaggy as this, you need to be familiar with its anatomy. 2. (Left) Here the artist indicated the texture of the fur with strokes that follow the muscle patterns. He darkened those areas that emphasize the action and attitude of the pose, such as the mouth, eyes, ears, and toes. These pencil strokes must also represent the variety of coloring on the animal where it is orange, they are darker where it is white, they are lighter. At this stage, the tiger resembles a female...
In the sense that graphite pencils work best with the linear form of expression, colored pencils work best with the tonal Tonal drawing refers to the effect produced by pencil strokes applied so closely together and so compactly that they appear to merge. This is done without smudging or rubbing, and the tones achieved in this way lose almost all suggestion of line. HOW TONE IS ACHIEVED WITH COLORED PENCILS Tones are made with a colored pencils point (sharp, dull, or blunt) or with its shaft (the side of the lead). The quality of tone produced can be strongly or subtly influenced by the shape of the pencil's point, as well as by the method in which the pencil is used. A slow and As stated earlier, the pressure with which a colored pencil is applied has a great effect on that color's value. A wide scale of tonal values can be expressed for each color by varying your pencil pressure. The only limitation is that each pencil has its own inherent value, which is what you see when you look...
Chapter 3 HOW WE SEE FOR PERSPECTIVE DRAWING A perspective drawing will look correct only if the artist's viewpoint and his direction of viewing the subject are relatively fixed. This means drawing with a limited field of vision. This field is usually called the CONE OF VISION because of the infinite number of sight lines which radiate in a cone-like pattern from the eye. (In reality these lines are light rays coming from the subject to the eye. ) The angle of this cone is between 45 and 60 degrees. If a greater angle is used in a drawing, it implies a moving cone of vision and the picture will be distorted. You can test your cone of vision by looking straight ahead and swinging your outstretched arms in and out of sight. To understand perspective drawing a PICTURE PLANE must be imagined between the observer and subject. THIS PLANE HAS A CONSTANT RIGHT ANGLE RELATIONSHIP WITH THE CENTRAL VISUAL RAY. So when drawing a subject, whether it is above, below or straight ahead, imagine...
My sister, Cathi, is an awesome artist, and I want the world to see a sample of her beautiful work. This drawing is a wonderful representation of realistic colored pencil. My sister, Cathi, is an awesome artist, and I want the world to see a sample of her beautiful work. This drawing is a wonderful representation of realistic colored pencil. Practice the projects in this book one at a time, in the order in which they appear. It will give you the training you need to begin to fully develop your colored pencil skills. About Colored Pencil Colored pencil can be daunting. I have written many books on the subject, and have learned more and more with each one. In previous books, I used a variety of brands and types of colored pencils. It was fun experimenting, but a bit confusing to the reader and the students trying to follow my techniques. When I first tried colored pencil drawing myself, it was disastrous. My efforts rendered something resembling a kindergartner's crayon drawing, and had...
Secrets to Drawing Realistic Faces Paperback, 144 pages, 31995 Learn how to master proportions, map facial features accurately, and study shapes within a composition to capture heightened realism and accuracy. Carrie uses clear step-by-step instructions, before-and-after examples from students, and proven drawing exercises used to train artists throughout the country. Tap the proven techniques and collective drawing wisdom of over a dozen venerable Artist's Magazine and North Light artists The Pencil Box covers materials, tips for improvement and dozens of drawing techniques. Includes 14 step-by-step demonstrations in a range of popular subjects, including landscapes, portraits, still lifes and seascapes. Secrets to Realistic Drawing If you're an artist armed only with a pencil, this book is for you Secrets to Realistic Drawing will have you creating lifelike drawings in no time by teaching you drawing principles in a clear and concise manner. The techniques, strategies and...
Have a set of wavy lines that follow each other's direction to give the impression of wood. Above the wood are a series of zigzagging lines that give a jagged impression, and next to that another series of interlocking squiggly lines that imply the sense of a woven type of fabric. Going down to the next row it starts with a series of dot-like marks in rows. In the charcoal section using conte crayon I remember using this type of mark to imply the texture of a straw hat. Underneath the dots is the alphabet. I have always found that the image of a letter is visually very interesting, and so next to this I have used letter-like marks to make an interesting type texture that looks as though it moves or pulsates across the picture surface. Next to that is a continuous line drawing of a flower that is done quickly from observation. The line starts at the bottom of the stem. It rapidly works its way up around and across the shape
(The following procedure applies both to top view and perspective drawing.) 1st Draw diagonals. 2nd Carry around guide lines (arrows) as shown. Basically, this creates a concentric rectangle. 3rd Draw line parallel to side of rectangle (shown dotted) to locate the desired point.
What you see (right) are lines converging to a central vanishing point at eye level. Being standard perspective drawing this is readily accepted. Since looking straight out is so very natural and common, this viewpoint is probably the most frequently used in perspective drawing.
Burnish more Sky Blue Light inside the rim and above the pot to make it deeper in tone. Use Blue Violet Lake to add more color to the inside rim and body of the pot. On the pot, use a circular motion with the flat of the pencil lead, not the point. This will give the illusion of the speckling seen in the glaze. Look closely at the illustration and you can see where I used these circular strokes, and where the pencil lines are just drawn in.
Entire books have been written about perspective. Basically, images change depending on the vantage point from which you view them. Areas that are closer seem much larger, while areas farther away seem to shrink. In realistic drawing, you must always remember this. Your artwork reflects where you are in relation to your subject matter.
1 In two-point perspective the drawing theory is very much the same. The difference is that the box or cube is set in a different orientation to the picture plane - instead of drawing a square in a facing position or running parallel to the picture plane, as we did in step one for the one point perspective drawing. We instead draw a vertical line just to the left or right of centre. It is possible, using the same process but changing the vanishing points, to create many boxes in different orientations on the same picture. This process described here has also been used in the observed perspective drawing, but the vanishing points and horizon line or eye level is found through calculation from our observation.
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How To Become A Professional Pencil Drawing Artist
Realize Your Dream of Becoming a Professional Pencil Drawing Artist. Learn The Art of Pencil Drawing From The Experts. A Complete Guide On The Qualities of A Pencil Drawing Artist.