Univ Calif Digitizeu by rsiicroson

article, then prick through the crease? where they cross each other. To avoid injury to the eentcrof a round wooden plate by the repeated application of a compass, a horn protractor is fastened to the center with thumb tack«, which leaves the center transparent, upon which the. compass may be. applied with considerable pressure, [n the absence of a compass with an extension where large circles are required, a strip of pasteboard is substituted; this is fastened to the center by a needle. For every cross line a hole is made into the strip, the penc;l is inserted and drawn around by moving the strip in a circular motion.

The Tracing and Transferring of Designs. The design is carefully drawn upon tracing paper or tracing cloth, by means of a medium soft pencil; the more perfect the drawing is made, the more it will lighten the work. If the drawing obtain«! is perfectly symmetrical, i. e., the right half of the same exactly like the left, it will save much time and labor by transferring it upon the surface by rubbing. If the symmetrical design is accompanied in the center by a monogram, motto, figures or flowers, these are for the present omitted and traced in a manner which will be explained further on.

Tne tracing of an entirely symmetrical design is reversed, with the drawing turned downward upon the wood and carefully observed that the center of the tracing lies completely in correspondence with the center line of the division line of the surface. The tracing paper is fastened with wax, and held as firmly with the left hand as possible, that it cannot be displaced, and rubbed with a paper folder or the thuinb-nail of the right hand over all parts of the design, until the same is plainly transferred upon the wood. For figures, flowers, monograms and all not strictly symmetrical designs, the following manner is applied: The tracing paper is laid upon the surface, design upward, under which a piece of eolorcd transfer paper is placed and the design is retraced with a hard lead pencil. For this somewhat slower and more tedious manner it is advisable to fasten the tracing and transfer paper with thumb-tacks. Those parts of the surface are selected for the thumb-tacks that are afterwards to painted with black or other ground colors, so that there will be no visible traces left after design has been transferred.

Fixing the Transferred Design. After the design has been transferred, all the straight and intersecting lines are carefully measured and compared with the compass from the center or the dividing middle lines; then with the drawing pen and India ink the entire design is gone over in line lines. In figures and light ornamental designs, that come upon a dark ground, the India ink line is not put over, but closely to the outside pencil mark, or such figures will become too faint in the beginning, and are lost in the dark ground, whilst it can always be remedied by the subsequent removal of parts that have bee» drawn too heavily. The entire article is now cleaned from all i>encil marks left by tracing, and the coloring begins.

The Coloring. Spread upon the palette, before beginning to paint, all the different colors, in sufficient quantity, that are to be used. A good rule in coloring the design, is not to apply the colors in too dry a state, so that the separate brush strokes may not be visible. The coloring is just that part of the work which cannot be explicitly enough described and taught in written instructions, and can only be thoroughly comprehended through the practical knowledge gained by experience, and thereby perfected.

Upon the most delicate tinting of entire surfaces the middle tones follow, lastly the dark ground colors, black, and the metals. Allow each color to dry thoroughly before beginning with the next, or going over it. The colors must stand out boldly from each other and should not be too lightly applied; this must be particularly observed in the dark body tints, as the colors lose a little of their depth ¡n the process of polishing.

When the work is completed, the entire drawing is gone over

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