Either the whole picture may be brought out in its outlines and shadows, on one side of the sheet, with black, brown or gray color, and illuminated with the proper colors in the proper places on the other side.
Or simply the manner of ordinary oil painting may be adopted with the glass colors, and tiie picture treated as by an artist in oil.
Or, as is now most customary, both methods may be united? the artist making use of each in certain places, according to the requirements of the object he has in view.
For these three methods the following common rules will serve.
The shadows and dark colored outlines, and that which is called in oil 'under painting,' should be drawn on the front side of the glass, or that which is turned towards the spectator.
The illuminating colors, especially the principal ones, should be laid on the back or reversed side.
Intermediate tints, and gradations by shading, should generally be placed on the front side, but sometimes, when they alternate with each other, necessarily must lie on both •, as they cannot be put in contact on one and the same side without danger of running into each other, and making a false color.
The silver yellow and red colors, before alluded to, must always be placed 011 the back or reversed side.
In some particular cases colors may he laid on corresponding places 011 both sides of the glass, in order to produce certain effects by the light falling through the two together. Thus, purple on one side and gold yellow 011 the other, give a magnificent, fiery scarlet; blue and yellow, according to their-respective intensities, give different shades of green; the latter, again, with bine 011 the opposite side, serve for excellent distance colors. And finally, by the mixture of several colors, the most diversified intermediate tints may be obtained, so that glass-painting in its present state may be brought to assimilate with oil painting in its power of producing varied effects.
Iii order to put a new tone of color 011 a surface already marked with outlines, etc., it must lirst be dried by a gentle and equal heat, (to avoid the warping of the glass), and again painted immediately after it lias cooled. Or the black lines lirst laid 011 may be at once burnt in, and where possible, with these any yellow shades also which may be required, after which the painting, then fixed, may be further worked upon without danger of damage. The residuum of the unfluxed yellow color may be removed after burning, and again used. This color must never bo put over any other, nor ov er dark shadows, unless these are prev: ously burnt in, but always require a carefully cleaned surface of glass to lie upon; otherwise it would combine with the flux of the under color, whereby the earthy residuum would be fixed, and the transparency and beauty of the whole destroyed.
All pigments must be laid on somewhat darker than in other kinds of painting, as they lose in depth by burning.
When a pigment has overrun it^.outline, the superfluous quantity must be removed, when dry, with a knife.
By taking away the ground with a style of fine grained wood, pointed in front and smooth at the back, (a tool used m etching), the most effective lights may be obtained.
Should the colors not appear quite dull and dry, but shining ami greasy, after the drying of the picture, this is caused by the misuse of the oil, which is always dangerous to the beauty of the pigments in firing.
It is neither necessary nor advisable to allow more than one day for the drying of the colors; the burning in should be proceeded with at the expiration of the time named.
Lastly, during the work, the greatest cleanliness must be observed throughout, the pencil and palette must be kept perfectly clean, and the painting pre,served from dust, etc., for which reason it is not advisable to paint- in a laboratory or melting room, where the presence of vapor, dust, and impurities of many kinds cannot be avoided.
Mosaic Glass-Painting. The before mentioned rules for laying 011 the colors will apply also to the method of forming designs with colored pieces of pot metal, or partly with these and partly with painted white glass. It remains to say something more in reference to the employment of the cartoons, and the cutting and arrangement of the glasses in this branch of the art, wliUh, however, is but little practiced, since the leaden bars in a picture calculated for a near view are detrimental to the effect.
Mosaic glass-painting requires two cartoons. One of these, a finished and colored one, is used by the artist as a pattern, and serves to determine the arrangement of the piece of glass according to their several colors, and the manner of introducing the
leaden ribs to fasten them together, according to the outlines of figures. Each piccc of glass proposed to make part of the picture, must bo distinguished by a separate number.
The other cartoon, which consists only of the black outlines of the lead jointing, and whose several parts are numbered to correspond with the first, is to be cut up in pieces according to the outlines, and the size of each piece diminished all round by one-half the thickness of the lead bar of the jointing, so that the pieces of glass may be exactly cut to the proper dimensions.
The cutting of the glass may either be done by the diamond, or by tracing the line of division with a red-hot iron, after having made a small incision at its commencement, or by cutting with scissors under water, which, however, is not a safe process.
With overlaid glass, i. e. pot metal, several sheets or layers laid upon eaeh other from the frit, as for example, red and white, blue and white, etc., it is possible to produce many effects of shading by removing more or less of the colored glass sheet, According to the outline, by grinding with emery. Or the colored sheet may be ground through to the white glass, and thus colored ornaments may be given on white ground, especially for the representation of damasked materials. Also, the white parts thus exposed may have a color given them at pleasure on the opposite side, in order to produce many kinds of effects, or to avoid the necessity of using many pieces when the introduction of another color in that of the pot metal is indispensable for the effect required.
The colored pot metal may be painted with intermediate tints of its own principal color, or even in order to produce certain effects, may be covered on one of its surfaces with another color. Thus, a fiery red may be obtained by covering a red ov erlaid glass on its white surface with the yellow silver color, and burning it in, or a shade of green by a similar use of the same pigment 011 a blue overlaid glass. In these operations the widest latitude is left to the talent and practice of the artist.
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