mode of use—mixtures — concordance of enamel wtth moist and oil colors, and their usual technical names.
r itttes, belonging to the first group. White is obtained v by permanent white, (for high lights), and Chinese white, a color of very limited use in painting, it being preferable to keep the white of the china when possible.
Permanent white, alone or mixed with other colors for heightening, which is called high light, or relief, requires perfect grinding. It should be tried by related and well fired tests before using it for important works. It is lifted up with the point of the brush, and laid without spreading. It could not bear two firings; it is put at the second firing, which is always less powerful.
Blues. (First group.) In his character ad a chemist,M. Lacroix gives us, in his work already quoted, the general reason lor excessive care in using blues • "All the blues, with very few ex-
coptions, derive their color from cobalt. ... As the mixture of cobalt and iron produces, proportionably, tints varying from light grey to black, it is well to take great precautions hi painting when blues are used with reds, fleshes, browns and ochres. It follows as a natural consequence, that when you wish to have some beautiful shades of blue, you must avoid using brushes which have already served for one of tiie iron colors, and have not been properly cleaned."
Blues are laid on in very thin coatings, particularly bluegTeen.
The first painting is but little loaded, and is shaded with the same tint in a second coating, added to grey in the last firing for the darkest parts.
Here are some notes on the concordance of enamel colors with oil colors and their usual names.
Sky Blue—sky blue.
Light Blue—light sky blue.
Blue Verditer—two-thirds ultramarine blue; one-third deep blue green. Slight oiling.
Barbeau Blue, or Smalt—Victoria blue.
Mai.ne Biue (in oils) —half Victoria blue, half carmine No. 2.
Prussian Blue—one-third dark blue; one-third Victoria blue; one-third ultramarine; a touch of grey No. 2; a very little touch of purple.
Indigo—dark blue; a touch of raven black.
Carmines and Purple. (First Group.) Carmines mast bo used very thin, lest they should turn yellow in the firing. You must put but little oil to avoid shrivelling. Never touch them with a knife; the brush must be sufficient. It is ?lso recommended, when using purple, to fill the brush well and to turn it round and round to dissolve the little gritty lumps generally found at the opening of the tubes. When a pink color has had an addition of purple to it, spirits ot lavender with a drop of oil of turpentine should be preferred to turpentine only,
All the carmines are shaded with the same tint. Purples am also used for strong shadows, and blues tor reflected lights. If light tints or pinks are made with light yellows, these colors must not bt' spread one over the other, but side by side, otherwise the carmine tints would be injured. In the first painting, carmines and purples are to be laid on very light; it is only in the second tiring that strengthening touches sire made.
" When carmines are fired in the muffle at too low a tempera-tare, silver takes the upper hand and the color has a dirty yellow tint; if, on the contrary,'the temperature is too high, the silver shade is completely destroyed, and the carmine becomes lilac or violet, which explains the difficulty in firing carmines. The same thing takes place with purples, but- in a considerably less perceptible degree, because of the shade being much darker and cassms baing in a larger quantity."—A. Lacroix.
Enamel carmines and purples are equivalent to the oil colors of the same name.
Light Pink—Caimine A and carmine No. 1.
Deeper Pink—Carmine No. 2 with carmine No. 3.
Laky Eed—Cr imson lake.
Purple Lake—Carmine No. 1 and a touch of purple.
Peony PinK—Half ruby purple; half carmine No. 1.
Chinese Pink—Carmine No. 3 ; touch of ruby purple.
Lakes (in oils)—Carmines.
Crimson Lake (in oils)—Purples.
Red Purple—Deep purple.
Lilacs and Violets. (1st group, except the violet of iron, W-ieh belongs to the 3d group.) The same precautions are required in using li'acs as for carmines.
Lilac—Ha'f carmine No. 1; half sky-blue; a touch of carmine No. 3.
Mauve—Half carmine A; half ultramarine.
Magenta—Two-thirds carmine No. 3; one-third deep ultramarine; a touch of ruby purple
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