CHATDK" CDL3RS, iie crayons used arc much hauler than the soft kind required in portraits; they are manufactured expressly for landscapes, and resemble firm chalk. The following is a list of the most useful crayons: White, Italian chalk; straw colors and light yellow, blue, grey, vermilion and Indian reds; blacks, conte crayons Nos. 1, 2 and 3. The white Italian chalk is used both for light touches and blending all the other crayons into m hich it may be worked.
The black conte chalks are also of the utmost importance; Nos. 1 and 2, the harder degrees, are used for outlining, and the softest degree, No. 3, may be blended with many colors to reduce their tones.
The Paper. The paper must be a good quality of drawing paper, such as will take the crayon, and it must supply a good middle tint, as the color of the paper appears through almost every passage of the finished work. A soft paper of a low-toned oli .e tint, which has been found by long experience to be better adapted than any other for landscape drawing, as affording an agreeable neutral, iqion which warm or cold tones, lights or shadows, may be placed with the best effect.
Arranging the Paper. Attach the paper to a drawing-board with thumb tacks, in order that it may be kept smooth and level while the flat tints are rubbed in. It is well to select paper some larger than your design, so as to give the picture a
The Drawirg. With conte crayon No. 1 the design must be outlined, showing enough of the objects to guide you in the flat tints of the sky and distances.
The difference in the crayons used in portrait and those in landscape painting is, that the latter is much harder, which is essential, as will be seen when applied to the paper. The breadths of the composition are not laid by working with the point of the crayon, but a part of the crayon, sufficient for the purpose required, is ness of the lighl^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ quantity of the color. This tint is rubbed vigorously with the fingers, so as to work the colors well with the texture oi the paper; as the operation leaves but little color these tintings are repeated unril the necessary strength of tone is obtained, varying and blending the colors by working them into each other from different directions with the fingers, as the subject may require ; draw the remote forms with pieces of crayon, held fiat or lengthwise. Blend the tints in and repeat w here necessary. The distant ridges of the mountains being made out, the middle distance and the nearer objects are approached by the nearer tints; still drawing with broken pieces of crayon, working obliquely or otherwise. Tne black conte Nos. 1 and 1, arc used in the near parts of the
picture; all the striking features of the foreground, such as trees, rocks and buildings, are drawn, and the material used in the manner described. When any line lines are nocessary, they are not made with the crayon cut to a point, but by the sharp edges of the fracture of the crayon.
Using the Co-ors. Each object having been drawn in with the conte, it is now tinted or colored by working over the black markings with the neccssarv colors. It is like the operation of glazing in oil painting, as under the light lines of the tracing of the colored crayon the conte drawing is still visible. By blending and again drawing with conte, and again glazing as often as may be necessary, we approach the finish of the picture, which is completed by sharp touches of light put in with sharp points of the broken ends of colored crayon. The color should be used sparingly, and the black chalk should appear prominent in the drawing. Do not rub in the colors in finishing or you destroy the effeet. The beauty of the work depends upon the paper being perceptible through the final finish. Any markings too sharp, may be worked down by the finger or blender. These retouchings arc repeated until the desired effect be obtained.
As crayon painting is liable to become changed or removed, even by blowing upon it, we must present some method whereby it can be fixed permanent.
Fixing the Drawing. Infuse an ounce and a half of isinglass in five ounces distilled vinegar twenty-four hours; add to this one quart of hot water, keep at a light heat, stir often until the isin-glass is dissolved, when you filter it through paper; pour it into a bottle with the same quantity spirits of wine, shake a few minutes and you have the fixatif ready.
I'lacc the picture face down (avoid having the colors touch anything), and apply the liquid to the back with a brush until it has penetrated through to the crayon and all the colors become moistened and bright. The first application will penetrate very
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