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Pattern layer is blurred slightly, and its Opacity setting is lowered to 50%.

8. Collapse the two Pattern layers together.

9. Collapse the Pattern and the Face layers.

A nice random circular pattern has been added on top of the dark robe, and the painting is now ready for the addition of some jewelry (Figure 9.4).

In the next section, we'll start adding some jewelry to our painting.

Figure 9.4 A subtle pattern has been added on top of the robe.

Painting the Earrings

In this section, we will begin to add some jewelry to the painting. We will paint several large hoop earrings using Align to Path, a new feature in Painter.

Align to Path constrains your brushstroke to a vector path or shape in Painter. The result is somewhat similar to stroking a selection but much more controllable and variable.

When you stroke a selection, a brushstroke is painted along the edges of the selection without any variation in the stroke. There's no ability to vary the opacity, width, or color of the stroke.

When you use the Align to Path feature, not only can you vary the width, opacity, and color of the stroke, but you can also change the paper texture and even the brush itself.

You can control how closely the brush will follow the shape using a Preferences/ Shapes menu. A higher tolerance setting aligns a brushstroke more closely to the shape (Figure 9.5).

The Align to Path button is found in the Property Bar when the brush tool is selected (Figure 9.6).




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Figure 9.5 The Shapes menu, where you can specify how closely a brushstroke will align to a path. The higher the setting, the more accurately the brush will align to a path.

Figure 9.6 The Align to Path button in the Property Bar

Now that you know where the Align to Path button is located, let's add some earrings to the painting.

1. Pick the Oval Shape from the toolbox and draw a long, thin vertical ellipse (Figure 9.7). The ellipse is drawn very thin to look like it is hanging from the ear parallel to the side of the face.

It does not matter if the shape we draw is filled with a color. The Align to Path button constrains a brushstroke to the edges of the shape. We can set both the stroke and the fill for our ellipse in the Property Bar. I chose a bright yellow stroke and no fill so the shape would be very visible against the background.

Figure 9.7 A long thin vertical ellipse is drawn using the Oval tool.

2. Click the Align to Path button and, using the Jewelry brush, drop mid-valued gray around the oval.

A new layer is automatically created. The brushstroke conforms to the oval shape on the new layer and we will not be able to paint anywhere else in the image (Figure 9.8).

Figure 9.8 A new layer is automatically created and the brushstroke is constrained to the oval shape on the new layer.

The Jewelry brush is a simple brush created just for this tutorial. It is available for download at www.sybex.com/go/painter along with the other resources for this chapter.

Note: The Jewelry brush is available for download with the other resources for this chapter.

3. Unclick the Align to Path button.

4. With the painted Oval layer active, Load Selection from the Select menu. Leave all the options at the default settings, and click OK.

5. Create a new layer above the painted Oval layer and set the Composite Method to either Gel or Multiply. The selection is still active, as shown by the marching ants.

6. Using a Digital airbrush, paint a darker gray over the top and bottom portion of the selection (Figure 9.9).

Figure 9.9 Darker gray is painted over the top and bottom areas of the selection on the new layer.

For this next step, we need to decide which side of the earring will be oriented toward the front of the face, with the opposite side toward the rear of the head. In this case, I decided that the outside edge of the earring would be oriented toward the front of the face. It really doesn't matter one way or the other.

7. Pick the Eraser tool and erase the dark gray on the top left and bottom right of the layer that was just painted (Figure 9.10).

Figure 9.10 The top-left and bottom-right dark grays are erased on the new layer.

Collapse the Dark Gray and Gray layers together. Click the Align to Path button.

Choose the Glow brush, and paint some highlights down the center of the Earring layer. Use a slightly larger Glow brush on the top edge and bottom edge of the earring to add a strong highlight (Figure 9.11).

From the Effects > Focus menu, select Soften and add a slight blur to the earring (Figure 9.12).

Figure 9.11 The Glow brush is used to add highlights down the center of the Earring layer as well as strong highlights on the top and bottom earring edges.

Figure 9.12 A subtle blur is added to the earring using the Soften effect.

The earring is finished. We need to position it so it looks like an earring and not a floating loop of metal.

12. Duplicate the Earring layer so we have one for each ear.

13. Flip one of the Earring layers.

Position each of the earrings under each ear (Figure 9.13).

Figure 9.13 Each one of the Earring layers is positioned under an ear.

15. When the two Earring layers are positioned as you want, collapse the layers into one Earring layer.

This step is optional, but I find it easier to work if I keep the number of layers in any given image to the minimum needed.

16. Use the Eraser tool to erase the top of each earring so it disappears into the shadows on the side of the head (Figure 9.14).

Figure 9.14 The top of each earring is erased so it appears to fade into the shadows on the sides of the face.

That is all there is to painting large hoop earrings. It is made quite easy using the Align to Path feature available with Painter's brushes. Not only is Align to Path useful when painting jewelry or shiny objects, but any time that greater control is needed when painting. I have seen it successfully used with industrial design subject matter all the way through medical illustration.

We will go ahead and add a couple more earrings using the same technique just for practice and to solidify the procedure. This time the earrings will be wider so they do not appear to be hanging in the same plane as the first pair. 1. Create the new oval using the Oval Shape tool (Figure 9.15).

Figure 9.15 The beginnings of the second set of earrings using the Oval Shape tool.

2. Using the same technique described earlier, paint a pair of earrings, and position them next to the first pair. Because they are on separate layers, you can try putting one pair in front of or behind the other (Figure 9.16).

Figure 9.16 The second set of earrings is finished and positioned on top of the earlier set.

Now that the earrings are finished, I am going to add some silver neck rings in the next section.

Painting the Neck Rings

We are going to paint a series of neck rings on the figure. This type of adornment can be seen on women in the Paduang tribe of Thailand. It is fascinating to see women wearing this piece of jewelry. It appears to stretch their neck, though in reality it presses their shoulders down. Painting the effect is a challenge.

I mentioned earlier in the chapter that I had painted the neck on the figure way too long. Now you know why.

Creating the Neck Rings

Painting a series of neck rings on the figure is similar to painting the earrings. In fact, the technique is identical except for the way you set up each ring to be in perspective. You cannot simply draw one ring, duplicate it several times, and expect it to look correct.

We will start from one end and work to the other. Whether you start at the chest and work to the chin or at the chin and work to the chest is not important. We will start at the chest and work up.

It is easiest to use shapes without a color fill when drawing these ellipses. Uncheck the Fill box in the Property Bar when the Oval Shape tool is selected to remove the colored fill.

1. Use the Oval Shape tool and draw an oval shape over the bottom of the neck at about the clavicle level.

2. Pick the Jewelry brush, and click the Align to Path button in the Property Bar.

3. Draw along the front part of the oval path with a mid-value gray color (Figure 9.17).

Figure 9.17 The oval shape positioned over the lower neck with a gray stroke over the shape.

There is no need to draw the complete ellipse, as we would have to erase the parts behind the neck. No reason to create more work for yourself than necessary. 4. Change the Composite Method of the painted oval to Screen. The gray color lightens and becomes semitranslucent.

5. Duplicate the Oval Shape layer.

6. Scale the duplicate oval shape slightly smaller in width and height using the Layer Adjuster tool.

7. Paint another band using the same gray, and change the Composite Method to Multiply. The new layer becomes quite dark.

8. Select both the Shape layer and the Multiply layer. Move them up using the Layer Adjuster tool so the bottom of the Multiply layer touches the top of the Screen layer.

9. Duplicate the second shape again, and scale it once more slightly smaller in both dimensions.

10. Paint another band of gray, change the Composite Method to Screen, and move both the shape and painted stroke up so their bottom touches the top of the previous Painted layer.

11. Continue duplicating the shape, painting the band, changing its Composite Method and alternating between Screen and Multiply, and arranging both the shape and layer above the previous pair until they cover the bottom of the chin.

12. Hide all the shapes but do not delete them, as they are needed to paint the highlights on each ring.

The arrangement of alternating rings should look something like Figure 9.18

and be quite flat at the chin and rounder at the clavicles. Though the rings appear light and dark, this is only because their Composite Methods are different; they are actually the same color.

Figure 9.18 The rings around the neck appear as alternating light and dark shapes because of their Composite Method.

Change the Composite Method of each of the rings back to the default. Pick each shape in succession, and paint a lighter gray center stripe down the middle of each gray ring.

3. Choose each ring, and add a small shadow using the Effects > Objects > Create Drop Shadow menu item. Use the following settings to offset a small shadow below and slightly to the left of the ring (Figure 9.19). X-Offset: -2 Pixels. Y-Offset: 2 Pixels. Opacity: Default 63%. Radius: 3 Pixels. Angle: Default 114.6. Thinness: 45%.

Check the box Collapse to One Layer.

Figure 9.19 The settings in the Create Drop Shadow option box.

The image should now look similar to Figure 9.20. The rings are starting to look silver but are still quite flat.

Figure 9.20 he rings around the neck have been changed back to the default Composite Method, and a light highlight has been painted on each using the Align to Path feature.

When all the individual rings are positioned correctly, select them and group them. It is not necessary to include the shapes in the grouped layers. Duplicate the ring group.

Collapse one of the ring groups into a single layer. The second group is kept as a backup but can be hidden from view.

Select the Neck Ring layer, and carefully erase the rings that cover the chin. It is easier to see what you are erasing if you lower the Opacity setting of the layer or change its Composite Method to Multiply or Screen. Duplicate the Ring layer.

Change the Composite Method of the top Ring layer to Multiply.

Lower the Opacity setting of the Multiply layer to around 50%.

Use the Eraser tool and carefully erase everything but areas on the rings that would be in shadow (Figure 9.21).

Figure 9.21 The chin of the figure is now visible, and a shadow has been added to the neck rings.

Use the same technique to add some highlights to the rings. Instead of changing the duplicate layer's Composite Method to Multiply, change it to Screen. The rings are now lighter, and everything but the highlights can be erased. There are now three layers: the basic Ring layer, a Shadow layer, and a Highlight layer. Select all three layers and collapse them to one Ring layer.

Turning the Neck Rings Silver

While the rings are now starting to look like metal, they look more like pewter than silver. To make them appear silver, we need to add some color to the rings. Shiny objects almost always reflect the colors that are around them, and it is no different in this painting.

If we carefully paint the following colors into the neck rings, the illusion of silver will be greatly enhanced: the maroon color from the robe trim, the flesh colors, and the background color.

Using a combination of Dons brush and the Opaque Round brush, paint color into the following areas on the silver rings:

1. Paint the flesh colors into the bottom half of the rings on the light side of the figure.

2. As the rings turn into the shadows, replace the flesh color with the maroon color found in the trim on the robe.

3. Paint the background color reflecting onto both the right and left side of the rings that are perpendicular to the viewer.

4. Pick the Glow brush, choose a bright orange color, and paint some glowing highlights onto the light side of the neck rings.

The neck rings are now finished. They appear colorful and very shiny. They should look something like the rings in Figure 9.22.

Figure 9.22 The finished neck rings

In the next section, we will paint shiny jewelry using the Liquid Metal Plug-In layer.

Using Liquid Metal to Paint Jewelry

The Liquid Metal Plug-In layer initially looks like an interesting toy with limited use. For a long time, I thought the same thing. I avoided using the tool except when giving demonstrations on features in Painter that no one uses.

Since then, I have used the tool extensively in different paintings to paint jewelry and other shiny objects. I have used it to effectively paint rain drops on a window as well as drops of blood. It is a very useful and effective tool when used with a little imagination.

The easiest use of Liquid Metal has to be painting highly reflective jewelry. In this section, we will use it to create some of the glittering beads, the silver necklace, and the metallic hat pin on the turban.

Accessing the Liquid Metal Plug-In Layer

The Liquid Metal Plug-In layer is at the bottom of the Layers palette. It and a number of other Plug-In layers are accessed by clicking the small icon that looks like an electrical plug (Figure 9.23).

Figure 9.23 The location of the icon that opens the list of Plug-In layers

Clicking the icon brings up a list of available Plug-In layers. At this time, we are only interested in Liquid Metal. Selecting the Liquid Metal option automatically creates a new Dynamic Layer and opens the Liquid Metal palette (Figure 9.24).

Figure 9.24 The Liquid Metal palette

The controls available to the artist include the following:

• A circle icon is for drawing individual circular elements.

• The arrow icon is used for moving individual liquid metal elements.

• The brush icon allows the artist to paint with liquid metal.

• A number of different sliders control the amount of reflection in the metal drops.

• Map accesses a drop-down list that determines what is reflected in the drops.

We will be using Clone Source as the map. The clone source defaults to the active pattern unless another image is set as the source.

The remaining controls in the palette will stay at their default settings.

• The Display Handles box is unchecked in the default mode.

• The Surface Tension box is checked in the default mode.

• A Refraction slider is not moved.

• Several buttons are used to accept the effect, clear it to start over, reset the layer, and create a rain effect (Figure 9.25).

Figure 9.25 The Rain button has been clicked to apply the Liquid Metal to the Dynamic Layer.

As you can see from the image, a metallic series of drops is applied randomly to the new layer. I recommend that you experiment and play with Liquid Metal.

The key to using the Liquid Metal Plug-In layer is creating custom reflection maps instead of relying on the default ones that come with Painter. Any custom reflection maps can be loaded into the Patterns palette using the Pattern Mover.

I have made a number of custom patterns to use in this tutorial. They are available to download at www.sybex.com/go/painter if you have not already done so.

Note: A custom pattern library is available to download at www.sybex.com/go/painter if you have not already done so.

Painting Jewelry Using the Liquid Plug-In Layer

We will use the Plug-In layer to create a hat pin for the front of the turban as well as some beads to be used in other areas around the painting.

1. Select Liquid Metal using the Plug-In Layers icon.

2. Using the circle icon in the Liquid Metal palette, draw several drops of liquid metal ranging from large to small. Do not draw them close together, or they will attract each other and distort the circular shape (Figure 9.26).

Figure 9.26 Several large and small drops of liquid metal are drawn using the circle tool. There are seven chrome circles on a new layer.

3. Duplicate the Dynamic Layer four or five times.

4. Right-click the first Dynamic Layer, and commit it to a default layer.

5. Hide this first layer.

6. Double-click on the next duplicate Liquid Metal layer.

7. Pick one of the new patterns from the Patterns palette.

8. Select Clone Source from the drop-down menu.

9. The Dynamic Layer updates, showing the currently active pattern reflected into the drops (Figure 9.27).

10. Right-click the layer, and commit to the default.

11. Continue doing the same thing to other layers, trying different patterns.

Figure 9.26 Several large and small drops of liquid metal are drawn using the circle tool. There are seven chrome circles on a new layer.

Figure 9.27 The active pattern is reflected into the liquid metal.

There will probably be a number of different possibilities that look attractive. Since we will not need all the layers, we keep only the favorite few. There is no right or wrong choice; your taste should guide your selection of which layers to keep.

Keep the original Reflective layer. The shiny appearance of each layer can be increased using the original layer.

12. Move the original layer to the top of the stack.

13. Change the Composite Method of the original layer to Screen, and lower its Opacity setting to about 20%.

14. Reveal and hide each layer in succession to see how the original Screen layer increases the appearance of shine (Figure 9.28).

Figure 9.28 The shiny appearance of the metallic circles can be increased using the original Metal layer set to Screen and the Opacity setting lowered to about 20%.

Choose your favorite or favorites. If you want to keep more than one set of metallic circles you will need to duplicate the original layer that number of times.

16. Collapse the Screen layer and Circle layer for each set you want to keep.

Now that at least one set of metallic circles has been created, a hat pin can be positioned on the turban.

1. Choose your favorite set of shiny circles.

2. Select one of the larger elements in the set, and copy and paste it back into the painting.

3. Hide the original set of shiny circles.

4. Move the new piece of jewelry, and position it on top of the turban.

5. Create a new layer under the hat pin, and paint a shadow on the skin or fabric depending on the positioning of the top layer (Figure 9.29).



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Figure 9.29 The hat pin is positioned on the front of the turban.

That is all there is to using the Liquid Metal Plug-In layer when creating simple circular pieces of jewelry. Of course, you are limited only by your imagination when using this tool. This section should only be the catalyst for more experimentation.

Creating Another Piece of Jewelry Using Liquid Metal

Before moving to the next section, we will create another piece of jewelry using Liquid Metal. This time we will draw a variety of shapes and combine them into more complicated pieces. The basic technique is identical, so I will not repeat all the steps to apply custom patterns as reflection maps.

1. Create a Dynamic Layer using the Liquid Metal Plug-In layer icon at the bottom of the Layers palette.

2. Click the brush icon in the Liquid Metal palette, and then draw a number of random shapes on the new layer (Figure 9.30).

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Figure 9.30 A number of random and quickly drawn strokes using the brush on the Liquid Metal Dynamic Layer

Draw the shapes quickly. Quick strokes give a smoother shape than slow, careful approaches.

3. Experiment using different patterns as the Map > Clone Source. When you have a look that you like, right-click and commit the layer to the default.

4. Duplicate and flip the layer horizontally (Figure 9.31).

Figure 9.31 The layer is duplicated and flipped horizontally

5. Move the layers together, looking for interesting shapes.

6. When you find a combination of shapes that you like, copy and paste the individual pieces onto new layers.

7. Move the layers together to form the base of a new piece of jewelry (Figure 9.32).

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Freehand Sketching An Introduction

Freehand Sketching An Introduction

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