## Measuring Angles in Space

Remember that the plastic picture plane is an imaginary plane parallel to your eyes through which you see the world. Objects that are parallel to your plastic picture plane appear flat; you are looking straight at a side.

If an object is turned away from you and your plastic picture plane, it appears to recede into space. The ends of the plane that slant away from you are smaller than the ends close to you. Those

Seeing the difference in size and scale is the first step toward drawing space into your work.

planes are vanishing in space and must be seen and drawn that way. In Chapter 15, "Into the Garden with Pencils, not Shovels," we will explain the more formal rules of perspective. For now, seeing, measuring, and drawing the angles of things will help you put them where they belongâ€”in space.

The Art of Drawing

You can measure the angles of receding planes against true horizontal or vertical, without using formal perspective rules.

Hold up your viewfinder frame and see the angle that you need to draw against one of the sides of the frame. See the slant relative to the horizontal or vertical of the frame and draw the same relative angle on your drawing. Or, you can hold your pencil up at horizontal or vertical. Look at the angle you want to draw relative to your pencil, decide on the relative difference between your pencil and the line you want to draw, and draw it in.