Drawing Glossary

al fresco Italian for "in the fresh air;" it is the term for doing things outside—including drawing, of course.

artists' studios range from converted closets to converted guest houses. Where you put your studio depends on where you have room, of course, but its individuality can be whatever you choose.

cairns man-made trail markings, most often piles of rocks that mark the trailside path. Adding these mini-structures to your drawing can lead the viewer onto the trail, too.

calligraphic handwriting in a particular style, or font, often with a wedge-tipped pen called a calligraphic pen.

chiaroscuro Italian for light and shadow. It refers here to a system of tonal shading to render an object so it appears three-dimensional.

color wheel a way of showing primary and secondary colors. The circle is divided into sixths, and the primary colors—red, yellow, and blue—are in every other wedge. In between each of them are the secondary colors—orange, green, and purple—which are made by mixing the primaries on either side of them.

contour drawing any drawing in which the lines represent the edge of a form, shape, or space; the edge between two forms, shapes, or spaces; or the shared edge between groups of forms, shapes, or spaces.

drawing a way of representing what we see by placing lines onto a surface.

dry-erase pens pens designed to mark on smooth surfaces and wipe off easily. Delis use them for writing the day's specials. Look for them in an art or stationery store.

en plein air a French term meaning "full of fresh air." It refers here to painting done out-of-doors. Because classic painting had been done in studios, painting outside was a radical move.

eye level (see also, horizon line) straight out from where you are, neither above nor below the level of your view. As you move up or down, your eye level and view change.

filters the process of noticing only what we need to in any given scene. Frames are a similar sensory device, where we ignore what's outside of what we want to look at.

fixative protects an unstable surface; it is sprayed on a finished drawing to protect it after you've completed it.

foreshortening the illusion of spatial depth. It is a way to portray a three-dimensional object on a two-dimensional plane (like piece of paper). The object appears to project beyond or recede behind the picture plane by visual distortion.

gesture drawings drawn from short poses, no more than four minutes and often as short as one minute.

graphic images any images on your computer that are not text-based. Different image formats have different extensions (the letters that appear after the dot on a filename, including .jpg, .ipg, .bmp, .gif, and many others).

hardnesses (for pencils) range from the very hard Hs, which you can use to make a faint line, to the very soft Bs, which are smudgier, ranging from 6H all the way to 6B. Regular pencils are numbered as to hardness on the end.

high, middle, and low horizons represent how eye level is perceived and rendered in a drawing.

horizon line (or eye level) your point of view relative to what you are looking at. It is the point at which all planes and lines vanish.

illumination decoration, such as a border around words or a picture. illustration shows the information itself in picture form.

lateralization the way specific functions or tasks are handled by the brain, whether by one side or the other or both. The brain is comprised of two hemispheres, the analytical and logical left brain and the more intuitive and holistic right brain. While Westerners tend to use their left brains far more, drawing is largely a function of the right brain.

negative space the area around an object or objects that share edges with those objects or shapes.

paper stomp anything from paper to finger that can smudge a line, can make interesting tones and blurred areas. Harder lines can be drawn or redrawn on top of the initial rendering for more definition.

parallelogram a geometric shape having four sides. Each pair of opposite sides is parallel and equidistant to each other.

perspective the perception that objects farther away are smaller than objects that are closer to us.

picture plane a piece of plastic or Plexiglas through which you view a subject and on which you draw it.

primary colors the basic colors—red, yellow, and blue—which can't be mixed from other colors.

proportion the comparative relation between things; in a rectangle, the comparative ratio between the height and width. Rectangles of different sizes that are in proportion share the same ratio in their height and width.

range the distance between you and your objects—close-up (objects), mid-range (still life), or far away (landscape).

scale in drawing, the rendering of relative size. An object or person or tree, as it is seen farther away, seems smaller than another of the same size that is closer.

secondary colors colors mixed from pairs of primary colors. Red and yellow make orange, yellow and blue make green, and blue and red make purple.

square 90-degrees, at right angles, as in the sides of a rectangle. Measuring carefully off center lines helps keep your rectangle square.

still life called nature mort (which means "dead natural things" in French), a collection and arrangement of things in a composition.

tertiary colors made from mixing two secondary colors; include soft taupes, grays, and neutrals.

trompe t'oeil French for "trick of the eye." Trompe I'oeil techniques involve making the eye "see" something that is painted seem so three-dimensional you can't quite believe it isn't really there.

2-D an abbreviation for two-dimensional, having the dimensions of height and width, such as a flat surface, like a piece of paper. 3-D is an abbreviation for three-dimensional, having the dimensions of height, width, and depth, an object in space.

vantage point the place from which you view something and just exactly what, of that whole picture, you are choosing to see and draw. It is the place from which you pick your view from the larger whole, rather like cropping a photograph. If you move, your exact vantage point changes.

vellum surface drawing paper that has a velvety soft finish that feels good as you draw; it can handle a fair amount of erasing.

viewfinder frame a " window" through which you see an image and can relate the angles, lines, shapes, and parts—to the measuring marks on the frame and to each other. It is as simple as using your two hands to frame a view or making a cardboard frame.

viewpoint similar to eye level, but think of it as specifically where your eyes are, whether you are looking up, across, or down at something. Eye level is where you look straight out from that particular viewpoint. Things in your view are above, at, or below eye level. If you move, your view and eye level move, too.

Zen more than a religious practice, it's a philosophy and way of life that comes from Japanese Zen Buddhism. At its most basic, Zen can be thought of as a holistic approach to being that takes for granted the interconnectedness of all things and encourages simplicity in living in order to live with the complex.



10 Commandments of drawing, 143

2-D (two-dimensional), 50

3-D (three dimensional), 50

action animals, 257 people, 296 aerial perspective, 198, 216

al fresco drawing, 180 Alberti, Leone Battista, 48 anatomy, 274-277 body types, 276-277 muscles, 275 skeletal system, 274 angle measures, 207 angles in space, 131 measuring, 132 animals, 257 adding bulk and toning, 260 birds, 189

Calder, Alexander, 257 details, 267 elephants, 258 exotic, 266 farmyards, 264 finding, 261 gesture, 258 giraffes, 258 indoors, 268 landscapes, 268 natural history museums, 263 portraits, 265 proportions and shapes,

258-259 scale, 268 squirrels, 189 waterfronts, 263 antiques, 171 Apoplectic habitus, 276 arches, 188 arrangement, 92-96, 155-158

contour drawings,

96-97 eye level, 96 range, 93-95 siting the image, 96

art, caring for, 330-331 art museums, 340-341 art speak, 310 Artist's Materials

Checklist, 345-346 artistic inspiration, 337-340 finding, 342-343 what artists say about their work, 338-340 where artists find inspiration, 338 artistic liberty, 233 artists goals, 142 processing visual information, 8 AutoCad, 333 Avery, Milton, 339

balance, 136

bathroom items, drawing,

172 beaches, 221 detail, 225 bedroom items, drawing, 168

beginning techniques,

85-87 birds, 189 blended colors, 329 blind drawing, 152 boards, 85 boats, 233-234 body proportion, 278-280 body types, 276-277 botanical drawing, 179-191

additional objects, 183 cautions, 188 considerations, 180 flowers, 181 blooming, 183 wild, 184 garden implements, 186 garden items, 188 vegetables, 185 wildflowers, 316 bowls, 168

boxes, drawing in, 110 brachycephalic faces, 289 brain, 16

hemispheres, 6

children, 7 lateralization, 17 left-brain, 17-18, 24-25 child development, 19-20

left-handedness, 17-18 right-brain, 17-18 child development,

19-20 profile/vase-vase/ profile drawing exercise, 23-25 right side up/upside down drawing exercise, 26-30 teaching children right-brain approach to drawing, 302-303 right-handedness, 17-18

bristol board, 84 brushes, care of, 129 buildings. See stuctures Burchfield, Charles, 339 butterflies, 182

cairns, 232

Calder, Alexander, 257 calligraphic writing, 321 cards, 320 caricatures, 323 caring for your work,

330-331 carpenter's angle measure, 157

cartoons, 322-323 chairs, 171

outside, 191 charcoal paper, 128 charcoal pencils, 129 checklists drawing checklist, 157 Materials Checklist, 345-346 chiaroscuro, 119 children child development, 19-20

developing both sides of the brain, 7 drawing, 7

drawing materials, 307 heads and faces, 290 reference materials, 308 symbolic drawing, 301 teaching drawing exercises,

310-312 encouraging creativity, 304-305 making drawing a positive experience, 307-310

problem solving,

310-312 right-brain approach to drawing, 302-303 visual development, 305

visual learning, 303 chins, 289 circles, 130 circuses, 266 classes computer art classes, 334

drawing classes, 83 close-up range, 94 clothing, 294-295 cold press paper, 84 colored pencils, 328-330 colors, 328-329

meanings, 147 commitment, 166 Complete Letters of Vincent van Gogh, 197 complimentary colors, 329

composition, 93 Golden Section, 105 still life, 104-106 computers, 331-334 art and graphic programs, 333 computer art classes, 334

drawing with, 333-334 e-mailing images, 332 printing images, 332 scanning images, 332 Web sites, 332 conte crayons, 129 contour drawing, 36-41 drawing an object while looking, 41 drawing an object without looking, 40

exercises drawing your hand while looking, 38-39 drawing your hand without looking, 37 object arrangements, 96-97 contrast, 161 creativity, 8

seeing as a child, 152 viewing work from a distance, 158 Crick, Francis, 16 cubes, 108 Cubism, 106 cylinders, 109

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