an aristocratic appanage ; when practised by the greater number, it becomes bourgeois, loses distinction, and, so, dominating- magnificence. At least this would seem to be true of such countries as those of Europe, where art is a thing more apart from life than it is, for example, in Japan. I had chosen some reproductions of child-form for inclusion in these pages ; but on second thoughts I will refer my readers to the works of those who have preceded me in writing on figure-drawing. Who does not realize that the head of an infant is proportionally larger, with reference to the body, than it is in the adult ? Who does not realize that the cranium of a newly-born child is proportionally much greater, in relation to the face, than it is in the grown man ? Who, again, does not know that an infant's limbs are simpler in surface form than those of a trained athlete ? Similar remarks may be made to an indefinite extent ; and, when printed, only serve to encumber the pages of the book. Such observations are easy to make and differ essentially from that type of observation which would seem to be as easy and yet is not ; the observation, say, of the shape of the frontal plane. Why it should require a trained artist to observe the main direction and rhythm of the forms of a thigh, I am at a loss to explain. Yet it seems that it is so. Therefore I have specially treated that class of facts in this book.
Something still remains to be said concerning the arms and the hands. Concerning the arm much has been said already with regard to drawings by Michael-Angelo and by Degas (pp. 121 et seqq. and 227 et seqq.). I will add here a small but illuminating study from one of Leonardo's manuscripts. It gives a good example of the analysis of the relative positions of the ulna and radius in that particular pose. The mechanism of the rotation of one bone round the other in supination and pronation of the hand—movements which do not take place
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