Mangwa Drawings

be made, Hukusai's arm is quite analogous to my diagrammatic analysis in Fig. 51 of the resolution of the forearm into two parts, the first half down from the elbow full and fleshy, the second straight and thin where the radius and ulna are subcutaneous or only sheathed in tendons.

Perhaps more use can accrue to the European student from the study of such whole-figure drawings as are reproduced—also from the Mangwa—in Fig. 108. The top middle figure is very instructive. The "twisted volume of the trunk is an example of solid draughtsmanship quite rare among Japanese works, which—with the exception of a few masterpieces—are generally lacking in solid conception. The different volumes of this wrestler's trunk are most clearly inserted one into the other, one feels intensely how the thorax comes out from within the shoulder mass, and in turn, after becoming the abdominal mass, fits down into the forms of the pelvis. The back and sides of the leg are, too, well marked in this figure.

We have seen many examples of Michael-Angelo's complete detailed knowledge of the figure. The inevitable fault of the student is to include too much detail. As a palliative to what may be an unhappy influence of such complex work I have given diagrammatic simplifications made by myself of some of the drawings. But, after all, I may not be believed ; it will be better to reproduce one or two drawings by Michael-Angelo himself in which he has limited expression almost entirely to position in four planes: back, sides, and front; or to a simple line contouring of main masses. It would be a good exercise for the student to apply my statements concerning construction to a careful examination of these drawings (Figs. 109, no, 111, and 112).

It may be considered curious to include a Study of

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