1

Shows compositional arrangement of sheet. British Museum obsession. If it be argued that In a finished work the shoulders would be as definitely executed as the rest, I would reply Yes, but then an entirely new series of relations, of accents, of harmonies, of passages into a background would be elaborated the work of art would no longer be the same. In the drawing as it stands a delicate series of suggestions is slung about the median diagonal, and the thing is eminently satisfactory. Drawn in...

Intuitive Perspective

The accompanying reproduction is one of a well-known pen-drawing by Leonardo. In it the point of sight is at the head of the central rearing horse to this point converge all the lines which in reality are perpendicular to the picture plane. Lay a ruler over the principal lines and verify this fact. All the rest of the drawing seems, however, to have been drawn in freely. Some of the edges of the steps vanish to the point of sight, others do not. This is of course a derogation from the laws of...

Hukusai Hands

It is evident that similar remarks may be made concerning the toes. Rather for their interest than for any clear idea of their instructive utility I am reproducing a page of hand studies from the Mangwa of Hukusai. They are at least suggestive of a field of hand-pose almost unexploited in Europe. Their expressiveness cannot be denied. I trust my readers will not use against me the evident violations on the part of Hukusai of some of the rules, concerning finger...

IoThe Experimental Method

Extend and to complete my no longer perfectly efficient vision, now deprived of its binocular quality. A frequent fault of writers on perspective is to present the matter in an unnecessarily arid and abstract way. A beginner will certainly get a better grip of the subject by following the experimental method of study at the start. Let him either look through the window, or better still, set a pane of glass upright wxyz (Fig. 26) in a saw-cut yz made in a board ghij, and place the apparatus on a...

Aesthetic Criterium

Captain Rattray was allowed to photograph, that is to make a reproduction of one of two little girls in Ashanti, but permission to photograph her little sister was denied to him, because the spirit of the child was too delicate to run the risk of any of it being taken away in the portrait This is surprising as it implies subtraction of part of the child's personality. As a rule participation does not imply subtraction. Possibly the child was not strong enough to resist the various...

Surfaces Of Suspension

But there is a more evident and cogent reason for the study of the nude before draping it. Drapery hangs free from certain supports. Let us consider a standing figure simply draped with a fairly soft material. The folds will hang free from the shoulders behind to the heels, will hang free unless slightly pushed out by the buttocks. If the figure stoops forward the folds will only hang free from the buttocks to the heels along the back the drapery will lie close and very possibly foldless. Now...

Certain Forewords Of Importance

MANY treatises on artistic anatomy exist there exists, it may be, a less number of volumes on figure-drawing. Several of these treatises, of these volumes, I have read, still more have I glanced through years ago I consulted with assiduity Marshall's Anatomy for Artists. Now, as a draughtsman of the nude myself, as a sculptor, as a painter, I have faults to find with one and all of the books on drawing that it has been my lot to come across. Some of them are practically valueless others are...

Info

The natives at once bereft me of that illusion, and added that it is impossible to reproduce 1 ' The ornaments were explained to me by the Bainings themselves, so there cannot be the least possible doubt that those who execute drawings associate them with a determined idea, although the relation between drawing and idea remains almost always hidden from us, as the drawing oflFers no kind of resemblance to the object in question. Thus one sees the danger of interpreting...

Reticence And Measure

Satisfies me at first glance will inevitably allow me to analyse it in a like manner the same facts will always be represented though the ways of representing them will differ. These facts are the real subject-matter of this book. The Leonardo drawing (Fig. 72) of course partakes more of the nature of a diagram than of a drawing, and although it contains many masterly qualities, although I should be very glad to be able to do it myself, still it may be used from one point of view as a...

Rembrandts Landscape

Sufficiently adaptable to the apparently less complex human figure did not adapt itself to landscape work. That is the inconvenience of learning how to make a drawing instead of learning how to draw. Some of the most remarkable European landscape-drawings we possess are by a man who is classified as a figure painter. This is annoying. His name is Rembrandt. Had he, being a figure artist, the right to produce remarkable landscapes* I do not venture to decide. My special reason for reproducing...

About B C I

Perhaps of Amenophis III. Shows extraordinarily natural treatment leading to the supposition that the use of the traditional formula was quite voluntary unknown, for it there is no place in them. European Art may almost be termed, at least in its higher efforts, one long hesitation between Hellenism and Mysticism. But Europe is essentially inartistic, especially its northern races, who, as we have seen, when left to themselves, produced naught but meaningless design. When...

Examination Of

A piece of charcoal and to imitate the external appearance of such a drawing,- especially to imitate its seeming carelessness of detail, its apparent lack of precision we see that kind of work produced by dozens any afternoon in the sketching class of the Acad mie de la Grande Chaumi re in Paris. The only trouble is that precisely these delicacies of observation and noting are invariably omitted. Follow the arm up to the wrist, the ulnar end is marked, while the diagonal direction of the mass...

La Tache Dominante

Black accent is placed at the summit of the curve. A lesser artist would probably have treated all three arches in the same manner and would have deprived us of the plastic eloquence of this delicate decorative arrangement. Evidently such subtleties of intention cannot be enmeshed in a web of words translated into another medium the fine cause of their being is lost, the unerring judgement of equilibrium between decorative intention and solid suggestivity, the consequent choice of pencil-stroke...

Latissimus Dorsi

Figs. 49,72, 83 a, 111) of the composite mass of the obliques, the author of the diagram completely obscures this fact by-bringing down the lower parts of the latissimus dorsi over the upper part of the obliques. The diagram thus belies the appearance of the photograph which it is supposed to explain. More than this, the anatomization is not even correct. The anterior edge of the latissimus dorsi is the only part of the muscle which is of sufficient thickness to modify, in a practical way, the...

Impressionism

In spite of its devise, Impressionism was slightly artificial, perhaps as artificial in an opposed direction as the art it warred against, though artificial in a good and not in a meaningless way it was French it, too, was partly quintessentialized. Hazlitt might have found Impressionism, too, unnatural. Perhaps the truest, that is, the most natural, thing about it, more natural than even its colour, was its transcription of open-air values in place of the artificial bituminous...

IoRodin And Rhythm

Of them for himself, and will see how often they are absent from the drawings of many contemporaries whose work is vaunted but whom it would be invidious to name. However the commonest failing is that of inferior rhythmic succession. An intense feeling for rhythmic succession is what renders interesting and valuable the most careless and rapid of Rodin's drawings, and is what is invariably lacking from those of his imitators. It is, of course, nothing else which gives life to his modelling,...

IoTone Modelling

Yet the artistic use of shadow is a very late development, and the use of strong light and shade with cast shadows belongs to late Europe only (China and Japan may be said to have dispensed with cast shadows).1 Many arts have lived, attained their apogee, and died without ever employing light and shade, as distinct from tone modelling. Greek Art occurs to us, of course, as the most familiar example. It is also curious that such peoples should have hit on the...

Landscapedrawing

IN the opening pages of this book I stated that the best school for every kind of drawing is the nude. Manifestly one could write a whole volume on the special branch of landscape-drawing. Matter is by no means wanting. Comparisons can be instituted between the multiple technical modifications pages may be filled by describing the differences of form between elm and beech, granite and sandstone ' recipes 5 can be and generally are given for ' doing * trees, water, and so on. Needless to say I...

Balance And Perspective

Rhythm without losing one iota of its primal massive simplicity wherein volumes have their being and obey the combined laws of mechanical balance and of optical perspective, you will have no more to learn about drawing. To draw such a diagram is easy. It is not much more difficult (though many would have us believe that it is) to make a drawing which shall express, more or less well, rhythm and flow of outline. The trouble suddenly begins when we try at one and the same time (a) to conceive in...

Foreshortening

Detail the two volumes of the lower lip clearly seen in the Leonardo (Fig. 96), the median upper lip volume and its two accompanying lateral drooping shapes Need I call attention to the fact that the whole charming cupid-bow design is curved backwards, which, in the case of any three-quarter view, throws all one-half of the mouth into quite violent foreshortening, a foreshortening which makes it necessary to mark out properly the far limit of the upper median mass where it probably hides a...

A Interest And Relative Volume

And exaggerated styling which shocks the logical factors of our personality. The justification of the avowed admiration of the period between, say, 1912 and 1920 for West African sculpture, may be found in the fact that neither the ' advanced ' European school nor the ' primitive' attached importance to mere imitation hence they found common standing in the treatment of rhythm untrammelled by serious reference to natural shape. In reality the two arts were far apart, for the European only...

Prelogic And Relativity

In the Middle Ages art was much more popularly distributed precisely on account of the more ' mystic' and less ' logical' state of the mass, who had not yet been taught to confound art and photographic production, and to whom the unnatural shape of a Chartres figure was not yet a matter for ridicule, likeness not having yet displaced symbolic suggestion. A figure on Chartres Cathedral may in a way be said to come intermediately between the spiral traced by the Australian on...

Ensemble In Paris

Such ideals so their absence is passed over unremarked. Coherent design is the weakest point of British art, which falls back on technical execution. A moment's comparison between London and Paris is all that is wanted to demonstrate this. Think but for an instant of the splendid sequence of the Tuileries and the Champs Elysees up to that great gateway of the Arc de Triomphe think of the terraced gardens falling away from the Trocadero to the Seine and their continuation onward past the Eiffel...

Mental Work

Wherever you are, at whatever moment, observe, mentally simplify the values before you, choose a compositional arrangement of them, act, in short, as if you were really going to paint a picture. Decide just how much lighter or darker that tone is than the other decide which slightly different tones you will group together in order to simplify the yalues to three or four. A little of this reasoned mental work is worth far more than the making of many thoughtless paintings. While...

Japanese Convention

In Fig. 121 we have a sample of some of the ingenious ways in which the Japanese have succeeded in codifying certain appearances of trees, reserving to each codification particular handlings of the brush subtly related to the perception of natural shapes which it is not the aim to reproduce, but of which it is the intention to suggest the existence, and at the same time to suggest the relations of these perceptions to the other perceptions. of the universe. The danger of isolating one such...

Landscape And Symbolism

Not in the same river, we are and we are not Let us not forget that a like stationary suggestion of movement inspires the greatest Greek statuary. Oft recurring in this Far Eastern painting, so different from ours, is a torrent which bursts, impetuous, from a rocky gorge, to pause awhile in widespread stillness at the mountain's foot or the same symbolism may assume the form of a lake's immense extent (Fig. 43), stretching to distant and to mist-veiled hills again, elsewhere, an unquiet sea...

Proportions

Undoubtedly we should not hesitate to falsify a detail in the interest of general balance. But one is at once tempted to ask the question whether the composition that necessitates a serious derogation from natural conditions may not be inferior in quality to one that attains to balance equally well while observing them.1 On the other hand, the field of artistic expression is wide, and it cannot be denied that the distortions of a Matisse or a Van Gogh make statements different from those of the...

Rembrandt Drawing

Blade, with its muscular attributes, and the clavicle or collarbone. The whole body is coherent consequently our descriptive separation is false. I have already spoken of the common error of beginners in overlooking the ' carrying on ' of the forms over different sections of the body. Bad draughtsmen draw a forearm to the elbow, or an upper arm to the shoulder, and leave it at that they overlook the rhythmic insertion of one group of forms into the other. Among other interesting facts, the...

Drapery

Drapery in a chapter devoted to anatomical construction. But in so doing I am faithful to my creed of uniting, as far as possible, immediately interrelated causes and effects. On p. 305 we have noticed how the external oblique and abdominal forms dragged away from the iliac spine the soft forms of the body behaved exactly like so much drapery. The principal difficulty in drawing drapery is that caused by the frequently large number of folds. We are simply apt to lose our 4 place 5 in drawing...

Multiplicity Of Motive

Because they form the foreground of the study. It must not be concluded that I lay down as an unbreakable law that foreground objects must be more minutely executed than those of the rest of the picture. Very far from it. Only, in this particular case, the mass importance of the feet attracts special attention to them the eye must not be disappointed by finding emptiness of execution. Once the feet and legs were established, mass was thrust behind mass, as they respectively receded, my pencil...

Anatomy And Form

ON p. 150 I said that th pelvis, from our point of view, was the key to the situation, for it is a rigid bony arrangement which gives us seven bony points always fixed relatively to one another. Nevertheless it is usual to begin a drawing of a standing figure at the head. There is little doubt that this way of work is induced by the natural tendency of the artist's hand to descend, both as a result of the immediate action of gravity upon it, and as a result of the constructional nature of the...

Law Of Participation

Imply a form of mentality which is ' prelogical5 and mystic, and which is directed quite otherwise than is ours. (2) Collective representations and the co-ordinations or connexions of these representations which constitute this mentality are governed by the law of participation, and so being, are indifferent to the logical law of contradiction. As a result of this government by the law of participation, instead of by that of contradiction, the primitive mentality finds no difficulty whatever in...

Structural Ensemble

If we seem to branch off from the main line of development, it is only for the moment for my thesis is the real identity between the higher forms of draughtsmanship and the architectural sense. I have several times put forward what may seem to many to be naught but an amusing paradox, to be a passing opinion, of the possible verity of which I should find it difficult to give a demonstration. I have said that not only is nude-drawing the best school for all kinds of...

Conscious Eastern Aesthetics

To portray the personality of the man. We are still told to portray. And portraiture, likeness to the model, continually occurs as the principal motive force in the arts which spring from the mentality which is produced by logical culture. Why do we object to the idea of the possibility of our occupying at one and the same time two different positions in space Because such an idea is contrary to all the laws which a long examination of the ways of the physical universe has enabled us to...

Greece And Japan

And anew disclosing the main rhythm of the body to the observer of the anterior neck modelling. This surface, or rather the volume which it limits, seems to spring forward from between the embracing branches of the sterno-cleido-mastoid which seems (Figs. 55 and 56) to tie down the posterior mass of the skull to the front of the body. I have already said that the skull should be looked on as a sphere balanced on the top of the neck, and that the face should be conceived as a triangular (or...

Insertion Of Limbs Into Trunk

Fig. 49 shows these facts very clearly. The squashing is evident in the dark area on the right of the drawing, the stretching on the opposite side. The relative arrangement of the front pelvic points (Fig. 59) is well marked in this study, which makes an unusually precise statement of the relative directions of the pelvic and thoracic masses. The thorax is nearly vertical, while the whole pelvis is tipped at an angle of about 450. This drawing is a remarkable example of constructional...

Future Reasoning And Antithesis

At contact, by an unusual route, with the underlying metaphysical difficulty. We, at the present day, seem to be tending towards a diminution of the, value of the personal observation by freeing physical science from the subjective element the ' primitives ' diminished the personal value by their tendencies towards ' participation Certainly the two methods of approach are very different, yet it is not inconceivable that they may lead to a slight similarity of result, all proportions kept of...

The Trochanter

Knee is flexed a little horizontal movement is possible between the head of the tibia and the condyles of the femur. The pelvis in woman being larger than in man, the femurs slope together more in the female than in the man. In carrying out sculpture, the head of the trochanter being nearly subcutaneous affords us an admirable point for determining a leg measurement for if measuring is to be avoided in studying, it is often advisable, and sometimes even quite necessary, to use it in executing...

Logic And Rhythm

Should we so anxiously demand resemblance to natural shapes The affair is one of ingrained habit. The more an artist is capable, the more he will attach greater importance to rhythm, of one kind or another, and less importance to ' photographic ' likeness. He will be content with a few amazing brush-marks by Ying Yu-chien. An Assyrian bas-relief (Fig. 41) is the account of the victory of a king. The artist did not wish to give us (it never occurred to him that it might be necessary to give us)...

The Ephemeral And The Durable

Everything in the drawing conspires to that end, the very dragging of the water-colour washes adds a feeling of complexity due to the ragged edges. Hardly any line is clean and sharp, it is broken in its course by saw-like jagging, by the interrupted rendering of dots. Nature, to Turner, was an immense congeries of parts he was far from imposing on her any reduction of her opulence to a scheme that should impoverish her wealth. Painting without scheme is impossible. Some scheme Turner had...

Trunk And Pelvis

Although these points correspond to excrescences on the skeleton they show themselves as depressions on the surface of the body, for from them start, in all directions, swelling muscular masses. Fig. 59. Diagram of pelvic construction (female), front view, and connexion with thorax. Fig. 59. Diagram of pelvic construction (female), front view, and connexion with thorax. From the triangle 1, 2, 3 of the sacrum springs the almost immediately flexible spinal column, which...

Participation In Portraits

Is not by any means certain that another mentality when it admires a work of art admires it for its most important qualities. In Relation in Art I report an admiration of the Elgin Marbles for the excellence of their light and shade Which light and shade is only, so to speak, a by-product of their fundamental excellences. What should put us on our guard is that we are inclined to smile at certain ' primitive ' renderings of the human shape while we admire other ' primitive ' balancings of...

Primitive Art Today

Away to the earliest being of our race. What we realize with so much difficulty is that c primitive ' art is a very real thing that it is not only palaeolithic, but that it is the artistic manifestation of many millions of human beings alive at the present moment. The Paris Salons, the London picture shows are by no manner of means representative of the total human desire for beauty, for aesthetic expression. By what right does the aesthetician ignore a branch of his subject which has persisted...

Conclusion

WHAT have I written Considerably more than a hundred thousand words concerning the art of drawing I have tried to explain in words ideas which are an integral part of the forms which represent them. Each art exists because the ideas special to it cannot be transmitted otherwise than by its medium. To talk about drawing is to doom oneself from the outset to partial failure. The plastic arts have a logic, a rationality of their own, which cannot be transmuted into the terms of verbal...

Sculpture And Anatomy

Of the fine ends of the moustache, on the shadow side, seems to stand out in space, a minuscle composition of decorative shapes. And note the sustained movement of form that comes down the right jaw-bone to swing round into the beard, and finally turns vertically upward again to the middle of the mouth. Without imitating the obviousness of all these unifications of form, it is quite necessary to bear them in mind Carri re employed them as it pleased him to employ them, another artist might make...

Antithesis And Allegory

To the antithetic position which ultimately becomes our logic of antithesis. That this antithetic position dates almost, if not quite, in its rudimentary forms from the beginning is evident when we consider that even animals realize that the presence of two objects eliminates the possibility of their being only one. This really constitutes a very elementary form, if not of antithetical reasoning, at least of antithetical perception. It is the first step in the series which will ultimately lead...

Perspective Of Fingers

Series of hinged rods with several joints. This fundamental condition of their design should always be kept in view while drawing them. If the palm of the hand is flattened out, the first row of knuckles and the subsequent finger-joints make up a set of simple hinges in rods that may be considered as being square in section. Consequently the axes of all these hinges will be subject to the ordinary laws of linear perspective, as will be readily understood from the diagram (Fig. 106). To this...

Mass Equilibrium

TO over-insist on the importance of plastic equilibrium, which is another term for composition in the widest sense, and to over-insist on the importance of conceiving this equilibrium to be above all one of mass to mass would be difficult. Arabesque ornament takes, as a rule, the direction of purely flat decoration of a surface by means of balancings of differently curved lines and variously shaped areas. The Greek key gives us an example of an equilibrium established by means of straight...

Tidiness

To imagine any more deleterious invention of a country that persists in placing tidiness not only just after godliness, but a very long way before art. I say that a shaded drawing on a white ground was demanded. To execute such a drawing so that it should be an artistic success makes a call on a most elaborate system of value transpositions, an affair far too difficult for a beginner to tackle. An artist who is dependent for successful presentation upon finish may be at once written down as...

And Rembrandt

Aid of light and shade to them he added a normal lighting which produced in turn a magnificent chiaroscuro scheme. No doubt because Michael-Angelo conceived his pose complete in isolation people look upon his sculpture as greater than his painting. Yet I feel that his frescoes satisfy more fully than his marbles. Not because his brush enriched a splendid shape with wealth of tint, with mystery of shade and light, but because his invention is too unquiet to attain to the serene composure of-the...

General And Particular

Upon a creed which taught the eternal conservation of the personality, the eternal reward or punishment for acts easily judged on the basis of a moral code. In this belief the newer art found source and inspiration. Earthly suffering was to buy eternal blessedness Fra Angelico dealt in psychology almost pathological emaciation replaced the abounding health of Greece. True, magnificent life is broadcast over the Sistine vault, but it is unquiet, distraught, contorted the godlike Hellene calm has...

Shadows

Ing to a vanishing point in a perspective scheme. I include a diagrammatic sketch (Fig. 45) taken from one of my own pictures which was painted from Nature. The sun is almost directly behind the spectator, so the shadows recede almost directly from him. Notice how the cast shadow of the tree branch becomes very much smaller where it falls on the stone Fig. 45. Shadow perspective. From study from Nature showing reduced apparent size of branch shadows on ground and distant stonework. Fig. 45....

Primitive Art And Consecration

Seeing in primitive arts an embryonic use of the antithetic element which, later, we see carried to a much higher and voulu degree in the painting of the last half-century, an epoch which has seen the conscious introduction of semi-scientific reasoning concerning complementary colours and the like carried to an extreme degree. This same tendency to theorize upon technique has inevitably brought with it a negligence of the signification of the picture, an allegorical representation of spring has...

Table Of Contents

Figure-drawing best method of study. Ruskin. Equilibrium. Choice. Integrality. Finish. Knowledge and intuition. Pseudo-science. Cezanne. Influence of Far East. The Tao. Si Ho's Six Laws. Want of figure-work among Celts and Germans. Greek art. II. RELATIONS BETWEEN COMPOSITION AND DRAWING 23 Composition a bad term. Art a symbolism. Drawing and composition. Painting and sculpture. Mi Fu. Knowledge to be concealed. Reason for plastic arts. Imitation of Nature. Van...

The Codified East

Stratified, their stratification must at least be hinted at by the form we trace. If they are volcanic the shapes they assume are governed by certain laws of erosion rather exaggerate than suppress these facts. Art in the Farther East is terribly codified as I have said before, we must beware of taking from a system qualities which are only admirable because they are a part of a complete system such a page of methods of treating trees as that reproduced in Fig. 121 can be but of little use to...

Plastic Expression Of Abstract Ideas

They are limited by the planes c, d, e, f, g, whose arrangement is evident from the diagram. One might even liken them to so many buttresses consolidating the central mobility, which is also counteracted by the horizontal line hi, almost exactly continued by the top edge of d. This line hi and others, shorter in the rocks as at e, furnish the decorative straight element which cuts the curved system mn. The rock treatment is (see p. 106, The Way to Sketch) curiously analogous to the modern...

OTors Al Architecture

Scoop out the whole of the belly deliberately, then to estimate the size of a clay ball required to replace the intestine volume, and to place such a ball, for the moment hardly modifying its shape, into the scooped out cavity- Smaller pellets of clay can then be introduced into the free spaces. In that way a sense of the spherical mass lying in the pelvic cavity is readily obtained. The form of this spherical mass is easily felt in the right-hand drawing in Fig. 91 it lies clasped within the...

The Main Masses Of The Human Body

BEFORE dealing with the different parts of the body it will be as well to consider it as a whole. In reality it is a mobile motor, sometimes the motor force is applied in the direction of locomotion, sometimes it serves to do other forms of work. In the latter case the major part of the machine is often more or less braced into a rigid support, from which the force may be adequately applied to the extraneous work. No machine that we know comes anywhere near the animal body in efficiency no...

Popular European Taste

The act and thought, practically inseparable, of the plastic artist are his work. This is, of course, the explanation of the legendary want of practicality in the ordinary affairs of life displayed so often by artists. An artist's powers are concentrated on the production of his painting, that production is what interests him. Once the canvas completed he has attained his goal, the matter loses interest for him. Selling the canvas is the affair of the man who makes money-getting his aim. Now...

Termination Of Lines

Men always pay great attention to the direction that the very last fragment of such a contour takes the line, it is true, leaves off, but the thought of the artist continued to follow the form round into the mass, as did his hand movement at and after the moment when the pencil left the paper so the mind of the subsequent spectator of the drawing is engaged to follow the same impulse and to feel the real convexity of the muscular or other mass that is thus thrown into relief by the very fact of...

Reentering Forms

That seeks refuge in the confusing effect of multiplicity in order to hide its inadequacy. We at once get the impression of a number of small and similar buttresses all turned out to order, each with its quintuple striation about half-way up, each crowned with its regulation rooflet. There is no climbing up of general effect in Salisbury. The almost universal defect of English cathedrals, that of a weak junction between a centrally placed tower and the roofs converging from it, is most evident...

Leighton And Classicism

Artists from becoming sculptors of value. That is why such works as the bronzes of Leighton, quite admirably modelled in their way, remain negligible as sculpture. For the same reason all his 4 classicism ' is pseudo-classicism he is just about as far from the classic spirit of plastic art as he well can be. His pictures are British illustrations of what a British mind conceives the outside of classic life and mythology possibly to have been. The classic turn of mind that conceived things...

Modelling Of Mouth

Illusion throughout the detail which gives life and truth to the result. In a hurried sketch very few of these elements can be introduced, but those which are introduced must be subject to the exigencies of their solid state they must not contradict it. If, for example, in rapid painting, only the high light on the lid over the iris can be dealt with, whether the artist is acquainted with all the facts of ocular construction or not whether or not he mentally and rapidly subordinates these facts...

Coloured Contours

And an example of what is by no means an easy method to manage it is a drawing in colour, by which I do not mean a coloured drawing, but a drawing in which lines of different colours are employed. I have made a considerable number of experiments myself in coloured contouring of mass with results that I find very difficult to reduce to any even approximately simple formula. In any case their discussion would rather belong to a treatise on the use of colour than to the present volume. In this...

Volumes Essential

Tion of more precise kind, is the spatial rhythm established among these masses, the exact arrangement of the angles that their approximate axes make one with another. In the accompanying diagram and elsewhere, I am obliged to 4 geometricize 5 in order to make my meaning clear, but an executing draughtsman should hold such facts in his mind for the passing instant, and at once clothe them anew with the supple vesture of living flesh. That, and that only, should his pencil portray on the paper.1...

Value Studies On White Ground

A few pages back I condemned the practice of asking students to make a fully shaded drawing on a white ground. The most important part of training Is to teach a grasp of ensemble of the relation of every part of Nature to all her other parts. One of the best ways to do this Is continually to call attention to relations between the figure and the background. To ask the student to execute the value relations over the figure without studying the contiguous relations on the background, of which the...

Leonardo And Chiaroscuro

Under its true aspect such a drawing as that drawn by Euphronios and reproduced on p. 89, without at least sketching in the mind-cast which dictated its making, and the differences which exist between such a mind-cast and that of England. But perhaps it will be better to leave these pages a little incomplete in this respect and to refer the reader, whom the subject may interest, to the fuller treatment of it in Relation in Art while I content myself here by asking him to meditate on these words...

Claude Drawing

Do with the matter, such methods only deceive the critic who, as incapable as the ' artist and not feeling the need of ensemble himself, does not notice the absence of it in the painting. The corner-stone of the edifice of art-is total coordinate rhythmic relation of all parts. In the present drawing the distant mountains are almost as ' near 5 as much of the foreground. When we try to ' go back 5 into the picture, as into a Claude or into a Turner, surprising is the difficulty experienced. We...

Mangwa Drawings

Be made, Hukusai's arm is quite analogous to my diagrammatic analysis in Fig. 51 of the resolution of the forearm into two parts, the first half down from the elbow full and fleshy, the second straight and thin where the radius and ulna are subcutaneous or only sheathed in tendons. Perhaps more use can accrue to the European student from the study of such whole-figure drawings as are reproduced also from the Mangwa in Fig. 108. The top middle figure is very instructive. The twisted volume of...

OThe Forearm

An aristocratic appanage when practised by the greater number, it becomes bourgeois, loses distinction, and, so, dominating- magnificence. At least this would seem to be true of such countries as those of Europe, where art is a thing more apart from life than it is, for example, in Japan. I had chosen some reproductions of child-form for inclusion in these pages but on second thoughts I will refer my readers to the works of those who have preceded me in writing on figure-drawing. Who does not...

Geometrical Perspective

Is only acceptable, even to us, within certain narrow limits of application. Though the choice of the distance from which the artist regards his subject, and consequently the distance between the point from which the picture should be looked at and the canvas (which two lengths are the same when reduced to the same scale), must be left to the artist as forming important parts of his personal aesthetic and compositional intentions, still we may say that in ordinary cases it is not possible...

Artificial Schemes Of Values

Engraver and to the photographic process-block maker a refined study of values spells extra time, trouble, and expense. The nearer the approach to diagrammatic representation, the cheaper will be the reproduction and the clearer the result in rapid printing. Hence the greater number of ' artists 5 aim at some artificial scheme of values which shall prove acceptable, usually by its tidiness of presentation, and the public eye in England, already too inclined to worship tidiness, is readily...

Intersections

The flexile nature of the abdomen is also very marked the superior profile drags away from the iliac spine, which has become in this pose a point of suspension instead of being one of support, as it is in the vertical or sitting position. Following this top profile towards the shoulder, we notice how the first dip is succeeded by a new point, or rather surface, of suspension. We have reached the ribs. But the lowest ribs are ' floating and the whole structure of the thorax is flexible,...

Law Of Contrast

Dead thing, and one may almost say that an indispensable quality of a sketch is a vivid presentation of life and momentary vivacity of movement or of effect. But from another and more abstract view-point this cross-hatching of plane and rounded serratus form in the Degas drawing calls for appreciation from me. It is a deliberate plastic setting forth of the eternal laws of action and of reaction, of Zoroastrian balance betwixt the wish of Ahouramazda and that of Angromamyous, that conflict...

DRAWING

Indeed such mastery of varied brush technique allied to, one with, inward intention, as the work of say Mou-hsi (about 1250) or Liang K'ai (first half of thirteenth century) displays, can only result from long meditation aided by an already secular tradition. Would it not be well to quote here, in these early pages, a few of the notes that the son of Kwo Hsi (probably died about 1080) made of the sayings and painting methods of his father. When Kwo Hsi intended to work, his first acts were to...

Arch In Perspective

Estimate the place of l, for example, in its square with quite sufficient accuracy by noting that on the plan (Fig. 31) l is half, or a third, or a quarter of the way across its square, and by placing it similarly in the corresponding perspective square in Fig. 30. The distance of l into the picture, and into its square, is estimated in the same way (though this time the chance of error will be theoretically a little greater, it still may be neglected for our purposes). A little reflection will...

Arm And Torso

At the wrist but at the elbow-joint Fig. 103 is discussed fully in any good artistic anatomy. I need not repeat the discussion here. The musculation of the forearm is exceedingly complex, complicated as it is by the spiral twist normal to the arrangement of the muscles in any other pose than that rather unusual one of complete supination with resulting parallelism of the radius and ulna. As many times as I have learnt the muscular anatomy of the forearm so many times I have forgotten it, and I...

Glyptic And Aglyptic Form

Of traversing this circumferential ordering with radially modelled forms. To engender rhythms in an indirect way, to weave them out of contradictory terms, may very well be said to be the appanage of sculptural rather than painting vision. And I feel almost inclined to lay down the seeming paradox that sculpture is less of an anatomical art than is painting for the main glyptic elements of form are more frequently opposed in direction to the anatomical elements than agreeable to them though, of...

Importance Of Model

What is of consequence to know is, first, that it is a powerful flexor of the thigh secondly that, stretching from the pelvis to the fibula head, it performs the important office with other muscles of solidly joining up the three bony elements of pelvis, thigh, and lower leg. This is a principal fact in the mechanics of the human frame, though even whether the biceps be attached to the head of the fibula or, like the semi-tendinosus, its neighbour, it be attached to the tibia head really does...

Ashanti Stools

Ashanti Plastic

The body only plays the part of support to the symbol of the face, hence of the individual. There is even no thickness to the head. Why should there be The possibility of the future child is quite sufficiently evoked without it.1 One might say that a headless torso study by Rodin is at the aesthetic antipodes from the Ashanti statuette, Rodin being interested above all in reproducing appearances of parts of Nature. This neglect of the imitative side of art renders it particularly difficult for...

By Vernon Blake

A STUDY BOTH OF THE PRACTICE OF DRAWING AND OF ITS AESTHETIC THEORY AS UNDERSTOOD AMONG DIFFERENT PEOPLES AND AT DIFFERENT EPOCHS ESPECIAL REFERENCE BEING MADE TO THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE HUMAN FORM FROM THE PRACTICAL DRAUGHTSMAN'S POINT OF VIEW OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS LONDON HUMPHREY MILFORD 1927 The primal object of painting is to show a body in relief detaching itself from a plane surface. Leonardo da Vinci. Treatise on Painting The greatest perfection should appear imperfect it will then be...

Ku Kai Chih

Tion in completed work should exist but be hidden. Michael-Angelo, when he had made his first main drawing, found that the transition from the forearm to the hand by the wrist was too geometrical and violent, so he made a new auxiliary study of the supple rhythmic junction between these two parts of the body. The artists of the Far East have often been accused of ignoring perspective. There is here a misunderstanding, the word perspective is used with a lack of precision. In the adjoining group...

National Mentality

Profile to the supple agencement of Beauvais, where the masses are so cunningly distributed as to banish all sense of repetition from a thing w7hich is, nevertheless, in no way accidental nor unordered in plan. I am quite aware of the literature, concerning daring greatness of arch and immensity of doorway, which has been written about Peterborough. As a rule ideas well-fitted to expression in one Art are ill-fitted to expression in another. Artists seldom realize this. Rodin was continually...

Kakemono And Makimono

Upon, Chinese perspective proceeded from quite another standpoint. It did not pass through the scientific and hypothetical period, it is on the contrary a direct descendant of primitive bas-relief perspective in superposed registers, the method employed in Assyria and to a slightly less degree in Egypt. 'The Battle of Ashur-bani-pal against the Elamites' Nineveh Gallery, British Museum is an example of the primitive solution of the problem of representing several recessional planes on a flat...

Communication Of Plastic Ideas

An inadequate artist is one who has not penetrated to the underlying significance of things. All great art is firmly and simply based. He who has never perceived the foundations cannot describe them to us. When once he has perceived them he is already far on the road to great artistry himself. It is evident that perception and execution are not quite interchangeable terms, though I am inclined to think that they are much more closely allied than many unsuccessful executants would fain have us...

The Child And The Primitive

But this is only one side of the primitive question. There are others. In the civilized child we can, even at an early stage, only trace rudimentary remains of the primitive qualities of ' participation At times the child certainly participates ', if not with the universe in general at least with his companions. L on Frappi paints for us a momentary picture of the infant playground in La Maternelle c je restai . . . saisie par un spectacle de foule. Dix fois, des poursuivants...

Architecture And The Nude

Fairly simple idea of what is happening to the spinal column, just how much lateral deviation it is undergoing, just how much rotation, just how much back-and-forward flexion. It is from such a clearly conceived starting-point that we must build up the arrangement of the other parts of the trunk. If we are drawing a back view and can see the backbone line, so much the better if not, we must imagine it, hold it ever in our mind's eye, and adapt all other rhythms to its primal Fig. 63. Diagram of...

Monocular Vision Assumed

You can hardly see clearly anything else but this small object that everything round it fades off into ever-growing imprecision. If we are really desirous of painting the appearance of things, why is this effect not always reproduced in all pictures In our perspective we assume a motionless monocular view-point, and then deliberately paint, all over the surface of the canvas, detail just as ' finished up ' as though the eye and consequently the point of sight were exactly opposite each point of...

Definition Of Values

Or darkness attached to each tint which makes its lightness or darkness independent to a small extent of the light and shade effect of the picture. Hence, restricted to a definition in a few words like that of the dictionary, I should have written ' Relation of one part of a picture to others, in respect of lightness or darkness of tint.' Then we receive an impression of values from Nature, indeed it Is our chief method of understanding the meaning of the retinal impressions so why speak of '...

What Is A Cmg Drawing

And the diagonal from the left knee to the right foot. The rest is variations played on the main theme, to which we must perhaps add the plane lying on the floor. It should be noticed that the forms of the knees are quite evidently suggested, as is the shape of the upper surface of the right thigh of the model . The different methods of treating drapery artificially at different periods and in different countries are naturally in harmony with the particular aesthetic convention in vogue at the...

Scribbling

Over the way of executing.1 Technique Is excellent, but better no technique than no understanding, no emotion. It is the inversion of this proposition that has kept England, from the period of Turner and Constable onwards, out of the pages of the history of artistic development during the nineteenth century and the first quarter of the present one. Taking its elan from the Nature study of those two great English artists, naturalistic art proceeded by the Barbizon School to the Impressionists,...

Thigh And Leg Masses

In the trunk the case is the opposite the facts of the front follow as a corollary to those of the back. The joining up of the two systems, that of the back and that of the front, is elegantly effected by the forward-sloping forms of the external and internal obliques and the transversalis and by the special shapes of the gluteus medius and the tensor fasciae femoris, all of which gather round the forward-sloping iliac crest or haunch-bone. The accompanying...

Rhythmic Curves

In reality it represents the edge of an imaginary thin curved surface, superficial on the front of the thigh, lying behind the tibialis anticus mass of the shin, and even passing through the thickness of the tibia itself. This curved surface has no anatomical being it is a kind of rhythmic abstraction, a rhythmic law which governs the mass arrangement. Obviously when the knee or the hip-joint is bent, the curve takes on another shape, which may be easily imagined....

Sacral Triangle

Back view anatomical figure is standing on its left leg the pelvis, which supports the weight of the torso, is in turn only Fig. 51. Diagram of masses Fig. 52. Diagram of masses of Fig. 54. Fig. 51. Diagram of masses Fig. 52. Diagram of masses of Fig. 54. Fig. 53. Diagram of certain constructional facts noticed in Fig. 57. h marks the head of the humerus. Fig. 53. Diagram of certain constructional facts noticed in Fig. 57. h marks the head of the humerus. held up on the left, consequently it...

List Of Illustrations

Perspective Drawing Methods

Puvis de Chavannes portrait, lithograph by Eug ne Carri re. Soci t du Droit d'Auteur aux Artistes Frontispiece 1. Tomb of Puyemr . Gathering and splitting papyrus reeds at Thebes. Brit. Mus. face 18 2. Egyptian head. Example of naturalism . . 20 3. Baigneuse. Detail of 4 Le Bain Turc by Ingres. Photogr. 4. 4 Mountain after a summer shower Kao Jan Hai or Mi Fu 30 5. 4 Pugillatore Museo Nationale Rome. Photogr. Anderson 36 6. Han-Shan and Shih-t , by Liang K'ai . . 38 7. Drawings by...

Drawing And Sculpture

Does not say, as we should expect, that the painter is obliged to understand shapes fully, and consequently as they would appear from all directions, just as the sculptor is, but he seems to take it for granted that the painter must be acquainted in such a perfect way with the form he employs and tells us that the sculptor must be furnished with the same science It is true that in the repetition he rather reverses the order of the statement, nevertheless we are quite justified in noting that...