## Ziczuz

narrow margin, tooled flat, being generally left round. This kind of work is used for 1 keystones,' rusticated basements, doorways, <kc.

The department now to be considered is that of the five orders—their proportions and methods of delineation.

Example 61, fig. 61, is an elevation of the ' Tuscan' order as generally received. The part from a to b is the 1 pedestal,' from b to c the 1 base,' from c to d the 4 shaft,' from d to e the * capital,' from e to / the 1 entablature,—the parts base, shaft, capital, and entablature, being termed a column. The heights of the mouldings and the projections are all taken from the standard of measurement of each column; this standard is the diameter of shaft immediately above the base. This is divided into two equal parts, termed 1 modules;' each of these again into thirty equal parts. The diameter is therefore divided into sixty equal parts; if necessary, each part is divided into sixty parts, called seconds. The standard is, therefore, thirty parts equal one module; two modules equal one diameter, or sixty parts. According to Palladio and other authorities, the height of column (Tuscan) now under consideration is, -including base and capital, equal to seven dia-meters. To obtain, therefore, the diameter of any column, its height being given, all that is necessary is to divide the height into seven equal parts, one of which is the diameter; or where, on the contrary, the diameter is given, seven times this will give the height of column, including base and eapital. We may now proceed to describe the laying out of the various members of a complete * order,* shewing the proportions of the mouldings, their height, and projections. Although some writers discard the pedestal as an integral portion or a correct feature of any of the orders, we follow the majority of those who adopt it as a distinguishing feature. It is not here our province to enter into a detail of the aesthetic rules guiding the laying out of the various orders; we merely give examples of the parts as generally received. To those of our readers anxious to go into the matter, we refer to more technical works, or the treatise in this Series entitled Ornamental and Architectural Design.

Example 62. Suppose the line ah -(fig. 62) to represent the diameter of a 4 Tuscan' column. Dividing a b into two parts in the point c, ac, cb will be the two modules; dividing each module into three equal parts at d, e,/, and gy and these again into five equal parts, a scale will be constructed from which to measure the various mouldings. Number as in the. drawing. fig. 61.