Example 72. Let ab (fig. 72) be the height of1 frieze,' and cd semi-diameter of column at base. Make be equal 4 parts; the fillet beneath, the fillet ee! beneath this equal 2; and from ¿tof equal 4. Divide c6, bd each into six equal parts; and parallel to ab, draw through these lines as in the drawing to the line gh. On gc, lay off equal 2 J parts to m, m; and with mn from my lay off to o; join no, no. On the fourth line from points g and h draw to o, oy and put in the angular lines. Bisect the fillet be in the line ss; from the points 1, 2, 3, &c. at fy draw lines to ss where this line intersects the vertical ones, dotted as in the sketch. These angular lines are only continued to the under side of fillet ef.

Example 73 represents the elevation of the 4 Ionic' order, a, fig. 73, is the base of pedestal, b the die, c the cornice, d the base of column, e the shaft, f the capital, g the architrave, n the frieze, i the cornice]of^ent*-blature.

Pedestal Base Column Fillet
fig. 73. fig. 74.

Example 74, fig. 74, shews the elevation of half of Ionic pedestal; the line ab being that from which the projections are taken; the plinth be is 2Sj parts in height, and 57 in projection. The upper fillet ad is 2 parts high, and 57 in projection. The width of die is 42 parts. The whole height of pedestal from a to 6 is two diameters 34 parts, or 4 modules 4 parts. The heights of the other mouldings and projections are as follows,.

commencing with the fillet at e above the plinth, which is in height parts, projection 54J; the cyma in height, projection 48J; the astragal in height, projection 50; the fillet 1, projection 48£; the cavetto 3j, projection 43. The height of die 87 parts; the height of cavetto above die 4 parts, projection 43; the fillet 1, projection 46; the astragal 3 J, projection 48 ; the quarter-round 6; the corona 6, projection 55.

Example 75, fig. 75, is the Ionic base, the line ab being the centre-line.-The heights and projections are as follows: the plinth cd} 10 height, 42 projection; the torus, 8 height, 42 projection; fillet, 1 height, 37 projection; scotia, height 5; second fillet, height 1, projection 34J-; second torus, height 5, projection 37; astragal, height 2y projection 34£; third fillet, height lj, projection 33. 1

Example 76, fig. 76, shews the elevation of Ionic capital drawn to same scale as the others. The plan of the capital is shewn in Example 77, fig. 77, and the side-view in

Example 78, fig. 78. The method of describing the scroll termed the 1 volute' is explain«! in

Example 79, fig. 79. Draw ab> cd at right angles; let efbe the diameter of the eye of the volute corresponding to the breadth of the astragal (see fig. 76); with half ef from the point where ab, cd intersect, describe a circle; within this inscribe a square. In fig. 80 the centre of the volute is drawn to a larger scale to enable the pupil to mark out the centres used to describe the scroll in fig. 79. From e, fig. 80, with radius ed, describe the circle, and within it inscribe the square abdc corresponding to the square egfh in fig. 79. Through e, the centre, parallel to ca draw/ft, and parallel to ab, tg; join the extremities, and form a square ihgf. Divide the diagonals ig,fh each into six equal parts, at the points 1,2,3, 4, 5, 6. At these points draw lines at right angles, forming squares of which the corners are only given in the diagram to avoid confusion. Divide ik into four equal parts; from h lay one of these to m; from i to n; from / to o; from g to p; from 8 to 8; from 1 to t; from 5 to v; from 4 to x; from 7 to y; and so

on to the point of the square corner at ST. These various points thus obtained are the centres from which the curve is described. Suppose the point t, fig. 79, to be the under line of abacus of capital (see fig. 76), from the centre, on line eh, fig. 79, corresponding to the point c, fig. 80, with radius hi describe an arc of a circle to the point m, meeting the diameter of gh prolonged to a. From the point in the smallest square in fig. 79, corresponding to the point da, fig. 80, with radius hm describe an arc mn, meeting the diameter ef prolonged to c. From the point on the small square, fig. 79, corresponding to g, fig. 80, as a centre, with gn as radius describe an arc no, meeting gh produced to b. From /as centre, with fo describe an arc to p, meeting line ed. From centre 1 (see fig. 80), with radius 1 p describe an arc to r. From centre 8 (see fig. 80), with 8r as radius, draw an arc to 8. From centre 4 (see fig. 80), with 4s describe-an arc to t; from centre 5, with radius 5t, describe an arc to w%7 from centre 2 (see fig. 80), with radius 2 w describe an arc to g, and so on. To draw the interior curve proceed as follows: frbm the point nm (see line ih9 fig. 80), with radius «1, describe an arc to the point 2 in the line a6, fig. 79; from the point to, with the radius to 2, an arc to the point 3 on the line cd, fig. 79 ;

from the point p, with the radius p 3, an arc to 4; from the point o, with radius o4, an arc 5, and so on from the centres corresponding to the points 5, t, v, x, y, &c. describing curves to the points 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, &c. fig. 79.

Example 80, fig. 81, represents the 'Ionic entablature;' ab being the centre-line of column, and that from which the projections of the various members are taken. In succession, beginning from the point b upwards, the heights and projections of the various mouldings are as follows :

1st height equal parts,

2d „

» 2

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