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quarter to one diameter and three quarters. For the various species of intercolumniation, with their distinguishing names, see the work in this Series on Architectural and Ornamental Design.

Where it is necessary to introduce doors, windows, &c., thus widening the space between the columns to a greater extent than true proportion requires, ' coupled columns' are introduced, the distance between them being such as to allow of the proper projection of their 4 capitals.'

Example 94, fig. 96, shews coupled columns in the Corinthian jorder, where the space between the two columns is a little over two diameters.

Pilasters bear a considerable resemblance in their elevation to eolumns. The height of members and their projections are the same as the columns of the same order; the plan, however, instead of being circular as in columns, is square, the external surface being flat. %

Example 95, fig. 97, shews ' coupled' pilasters' in the Corinthian order.

Caryatides are sometimes used in place of columns and pilasters. These are representation┬╗ of the human-figure. When female, they are known by the name as above; when male, as Persians.

Example 96, fig. 98, is an exemplification of a* caryatides. As a series of columns at proper distances form a colonnade, so columns with arches between them, are termed arcades. The Tuscan arcade is given in

Example 97, fig. 99. The distance between the columns a and b is six diameters; a is termed a 4 pier,1 b the 4 impost,' c the 4 archivolt,' and d the

4 keystone.' A semi-diameter of column is laid from c to dj which gives the line of pier hd. The distance from p to t is six diameters and three-quarters; a line through t parallel to ab gives the height of im-

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