Establishing a Scene

The artist has successfully placed these two figures in a strong composition in preparation for a detailed painting. Each figure has been accurately scaled to look realistic within the interior setting.

5*. Once you have drawn in all the images, add in the remaining features and details to give a comprehensive scene that can be transferred to canvas.

James Horton

Each figure has been placed in an appropriate part of the setting.

The most relevant information has been included to give the composition clarity and interest.


SB pencil

Tracing paper


Absorbency The degree to which the paper absorbs the paint, often due to the amount of surface sizing.

Acid-free paper Paper with a neutral pH that will not darken excessively with age (unlike acidic bleached wood pulp).

Aerial perspective The effect of atmospheric conditions on our perception of the tone and colour of distant objects. As objects recede toward the horizon, they appear lighter in tone and more blue.

Binding medium The substance that holds pigment particles together and attaches them to a surface. Water-soluble gum is used for soft pastels, wax for crayons, and oil for oil pastels.

Blending A soft, gradual transition from one colour or tone to another using either a torchon or a finger to smudge the colours together.

Blocking in Laying in a broad area of colour.

Body colour Also called gouache. A type of watercolour paint characterized by its opacity.

Bracelet shading A form of shading in which semi-circular lines are repeatedly drawn close to one another.

Watercolour study

Charcoal Willow, vine, or other twigs partially burnt and carbonized in airtight containers.

Coloured pencils Wax-based crayons in a pencil format and available in a wide selection of colours.

Conté crayon Chalk-based pastels with a square cross-section that are midway between soft and hard pastels in texture. Sold in a range of up to 80 colours.

Cross-hatching Parallel marks overlaid roughly at right angles to another set of parallel marks.

Easel A frame for holding a drawing while the artist works on it. Artists working outdoors tend to use easels of light construction. A good sketching easel allows the drawing to be held securely in any position from horizontal to vertical.

Ellipse A circle whose apparent height appears to diminish the further it tilts away from you.

Eraser A tool for removing pencil and other marks. In the past artists used rolled bits of bread or feathers. More recently artists have used standard rubber erasers, soft putty erasers, or artgum erasers, although the new plastic erasers are extremely clean and versatile.

Graphite pencil

Feathering Laying roughly parallel marks, often over a previous area of colour, to modify the strength of colour or tone.

Fixative A resin dissolved in solvent which is sprayed on to a drawing to fix the particles to the surface.

Form The shape of a three-dimensional object, usually represented by line or tone in a two-dimensional drawing.

Granulation The mottled effect made by heavy coarse pigments as they settle into the hollows of the paper.

Graphite pencil Standard pencils are made from a mixture of graphite and clay that is encased in wood. The mixture is initially fired and subsequently impregnated with molten wax. The proportion of graphite to clay varies and it is this which determines the hardness or softness of the pencil. Graphite has a "silvery" or metallic sheen if used densely.

Graphite stick A thick graphite pencil used for large-scale work that is fixed in a graphite holder rather than encased in cedarwood.

Hatching Making tonal gradations by shading with thin parallel marks.

Highlight The lightest tone in a drawing.

Hp or hot-pressed paper Paper with a very smooth surface.

Iletken Tipleri

Water-soluble pencil

A Charcoal B pencil

Graphite pencil

Sepia ink

Water-soluble pencil

A Charcoal B pencil

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Pencil Drawing Beginners Guide

Pencil Drawing Beginners Guide

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