FORM & MODELLING
Hatching and feathering
Hatched lines can be drawn close together to give a dense tone or quite freely, depending on the texture and nature of the image. The characteristic feature of hatching is thai the lines are never blended together and remain vibrant. Feathering attempts to blend colours or tones optically, so that while the individual marks are retained, they can also be overlaid to create a shimmering effect and a lightness of touch.
Loosely hatched lines accentuate the floppy quality of this cushion.
Controlled hatching emphasizes the direction in which the material is draped.
Hatching and feathering
The thicker lines of a fibre-tipped pen can give this tree branch a strong sense of solidity.
Bracelet shading is a series of curved parallel lines that gives the impression of a tubular form. The rounded effect that it produces on these tree trunks and branches makes them appear more realistic ^sfc. than an area of solid shading would. Bracelet ■ shading need not be uniform and rigid as you can ■ use it to define the different swellings and bumps ■jfyr r that characterize trees. Pen and ink or technical pens are good for this type of shading, although the more versatile the nib, the more range you can achieve with the thickness of line.
TIO UNDERSTAND THE VARYING degrees of darkness and light known as tonal values, it is essential to observe the effects of light and shadows falling on the objects you draw. You can then construct a drawing using areas of tone to describe shapes and to model forms so that they appear three-dimensional. Tonal drawings often tend to be more about mood and atmosphere, where whole areas can be suffused with light or submerged in deep shadows. A drawing may also be enhanced by using specific areas of contrast to create a tonal pattern throughout the composition. The important thing to remember about tonal drawing is to draw the minimum of lines and keep the emphasis on shapes and forms. Use tones as a painter would use colours to project images and to express a mood.
To create the appropriate effects of strong light on a still life composition, it is important to set up the lighting at an angle that will maximise the presence of highlights and deep shadows. It is this contrast that will allow you the potential to explore tonal patterns in your arrangement. Use a soft dark pencil for shading the darkest forms and a putty eraser to create highlights by lifting out some of the tonal marks to reveal the brilliance of the white paper. The subtle shading of dark and light tones gives solidity to forms and atmosphere to your drawing.
This monochromatic watercolour sketch of the same still life illustrates how a similar effect of light and shade can be achieved by using just three tones. Limiting yourself to such a small selection of tones will help you look closely for strong shapes and effective tonal contrasts.
1a. Begin by studying the shapes of the objects and also observe the play of light across their surfaces. With a soft pencil, make a series of loose marks to establish the scale of the arrangement of objects in relation to the size of the paper. Start with the largest object, the plate, so you can use it as a gauge to draw the other objects to scale.
24 Redefine the loose sketch with stronger lines once you are happy with the composition. At this stage use a lighter pencil to accentuate the contours such as the spout of the coffeepot. These outlines serve as a framework for modelling the objects by shading with light and dark tones.
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