Here is a painting that utilizes a single vanishing point without unduly discomforting the eye. I call this roll-over perspective. My aim in this painting was to paint the total extent of the landscape beyond what the camera or the eye would see, and without moving the eye's cone of vision. As the landscape is essentially flat the illusion needed is one that combines (in the perspective mode) a plan view with an elevation. Also to make the transition as seamless as possible! Secondly the perspective scale must be such that the distance from tee to green should still appear at least 400 yds.
Two essentials must be realised to understand how the illusion is completed.
First: the eye has a natural cone of vision wherein it can focus. This is usually about 30 degrees. Beyond this cone focus is lost - even though movement is discernable up to 160 degrees(wiggle your thumbs and see when they disappear). To look at my painting you will note I trick or force the eye to alter its cone of vision, when it really, is not necessary. It does not have to refocus to see the entire painting, but I make it believe it does. We are forced to look 'down' at the tee and 'up' at the green.The eye will refuse to do otherwise.
Second: the perspective scale is distorted in that I create the impression that the observer's distance from the tee is defined on one scale and that the distance to the green is on another scale. I do this by placing 'known' objects at
strategic points. The tee, the bunker, the trees, the green and the flag are all known objects and placed such as to make the ground appear almost flat. For those students who have already studied my perspective lessons they will know the principle - as congurent objects receed they will be reduced on a proportional scale. They will realise it is this scale I have purposely distorted.
My oil painting shown left is a more familiar example as it is arguably the most famous hole in golf. The tee is on a hill above the green and the length of hole is 155yds. It is a par 3. Again, under normal circumstances, it is impossible for the human eye to focus on both the green and the tee as it is for a camera to satisfactorily render such images.
This is still a most beutiful landscape ... even if it is a golf hole and mown grass is merely an earthbound oilslick. If you summise I refuse to mow the lawn and still play a little bad golf you might well be on the right track!
GO TO rivers, lakes and ponds lesson menu
5-2 RIVERS, LAKES AND PONDS
'I've been studying other works and trying to achieve something in the way of great depth to water scenes via mulitple layers of thin paint ... mostly transparent due to being so severely diluted with Linseed Oil. It's not quite there, so I'm now thinking of using Marine Varnish, but if that doesn't work, I'll have to trash the whole thing.!)'
Don't despair for this is not necessarily a matter of glazes, although they may help in certain instances. If you want to paint something behind something else, you might consider painting exactly that. Depth is achieved in the logical mind of the observer, assisted by the artist providing all the necessary information (clues). This is also demonstrated in my lesson on waves.
Clear water has no color so it cannot be painted. All that can be painted is what is under it, over it,standing in it, or what is reflected upon its surface. After all those things are painted then the water will magically appear.
Some reflections will prevent the transparency
Some will assist
Some will describe the nature of the surface...
To achieve great depth in water scenes you will need to paint in a number of layers simeltaneously.
1. The bottom of the lake or water
2. The reflected sky overhead. A little darker than it is.
3. Reflected vegetation from around the shore
4. Perhaps some lilly pads or something else on the surface. Leave a part where the viewer can see to the bottom.
This 'demonstration painting' provides the simplest of examples. Construct it yourself as it will only take moments.
Wipe away the center portion and introduce a green bank.
The area where the bank is reflected, will be the area that receals the bottom of the pond. Why? The angle of the main light source, and the shadows of the overhanging bank, prevent the sky reflections.
This is where I introduce some color and blend with foreground.
You can also paint in some submerged sticks to detail the bottom, as well as some drooping reeds. Don't overdo it! The pond bottom can be any color that suits your purpose as could the sky. I have used separated opposites.(see lessons on color)
Next, paint in a figure or something else that will enable you to add aditional reflections and depth. As I had already used red, yellow, green and blue I used white for the shirt. You can paint thousands of variations on this theme. No glazes are necessary, and the basic theory is presented in an earlier lesson on 'sunrise and sunset'.
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