These three examples show you how the three main categories of mammals' "hands" work relative to ours. Humans are plantigrades. We plant our whole foot down on the ground. Digigrade animals walk on the ball of their feet and hands. In the unguligrade example, the joint above the hoof is like our knuckles. These animals walk on the tips of their toes. The foot hos the same changes in it as the hand does amongst the three examples.
Look at the change in the hoofed animal versus the humans and dogs. The "wrist" is higher in the horse, which makes it seem as though it runs on its fingertips.
Looking closely at the limbs of both subjects, see where the shoulder, elbow, ond wrist ore in the dog. Of great importance is noticing how the angle of the shoulder is the same as the angle of the forearm. These parts of the dog's front and back legs stay parallel unless the dog is on its back and its limbs are not operating against gravity.
1. On this page, the drawings on the bottom left show how the back leg operates with this parallel concept through a large range of motion.
2. On the right is a drawing that shows how all four legs are working.
3. I created the drawing on top to show you the mechanics of a pawed animal. The cat's right side, in this case, has the legs in a closed scissor position where the left side is open. By doing this scissoring action to the one side of the body at a time, the animal walks. Another way this was explained to me was to think of the back leg kicking the front leg f orward when it took a step.
As I have explained throughout the book, we want to understand the basic rhythm of four-legged animals first.
In this drawing, let's look ot a comparison in rhythm.
1. The dog actually has one less change in direction of force. Reason being, the dog's ribcoge is suspended like a bridge from the hips to the shoulders, or force one to force three. His neck follows the sweep upward of the ribcage to raise the head.
2. Since we stand upright, our forces our different. Our ribcage is not suspended between two forces like the dog's. Our ribcage sits or is cradled in force three of the man.
3. See how this offects the force of the neck in both instances. Our neck projects our head forward where the dog's is projected back, or relative to how a dog actually walks: up oway from the floor.
Here is on example of seeing shape in the dog. In Ken Hultgren's book "The Art of Animal Drawing," he makes a point of splitting animal bodies into parts. This helps to see how the major masses are creating the animals' figures and the different shapes of the parts.
Here I hove shaded the fore and rear quarters for you to see the effective shapes and their relationship to the dog's body. When drawing animals, I see the major mass of the animars body first, i.e., its trunk, and then draw how the legs and their shape are affecting it.
This page has small drawings with big ideas. Look at the dog's body as a whole. See the angles in the legs. See the shapes. Look at the rhythms. Feel the story.
I happen to hove a dog named Adrianne. Why Adrianne? My in-laws have a dog named Rocky. Adrianne is great to observe. As I write this book, she has just become one year old. It's fun to see her thinking. Her body language is so similar to ours. It's strange how most expressive animals say the same things in the same ways. When she is happy, she jumps and wiggles around; when she is punished or sad, she droops her head down or sighs. Curious or alert, she becomes wide eyed and stands at attention. As every pet owner will agree, each animal has its own distinct personality, yet there are definite similarities in physical communication.
In this drawing of my dog, notice the overall shape of her body and how it already possesses rhythm from head to tail. See the flat angle of her back in relationship to the curve of her ribcage. I am happy with the shape of her neck in particular. The straight of the left to the curve of the right sweeps her face in the westward direction. See also how I wrapped her shoulder blade around her body to describe its form.
I enjoy the workond struggle involved here. I did o great deal of exploring to achieve my understanding of how Adrianne's anatomy operated while she lay on her back.
Here is a page of wonderful moments by Mike. Look at the diff erent stories. I love the multiple images of the dog running. Notice the squash and stretch found here. I like the drawing on the bottom right where we see clear perspective from the two dogs sitting like pillars by their owner. Above that is a drawing of man and his best friend.
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