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A JIIIAKM ft, with a diary or a time-planner - they are different things, You should not have to schedule time to be creative, it should just occur, and when it does you need to be prepared.

Use your sketchbook to contain all that you record, don't worry about keeping it specifically for either personal or professional work - put everything in and you'll find that the two areas mix and merge. Draw, doodle, write and note-take whenever and wherever. Clip out findings (ram newspapers and magazines and tape them in, staple in ticket stubs and any kind of ephemera that you've found or collected. Stick in photographs, rescued pieces of photocopied images, stencils, stickers, flyers, cards... the list is endless.

Project Development Case Study (I)

1, 2. 'Victorian Delights'

3, 'Naive Painting'

These are some of the books used as reference by illustrator Jason Ford whilst working on a project to illustrate My East End', a short story by Gilda O'Neil set in Victorian London, rot intra» MI« > uaw. ,,1(|/ t,s mm*VELOCIPEDE

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The Project File

A file created for each project is another method of storing all related materials, ideas and inspirations as welt as the formal paperwork relating to a project such as the brief, the contract and reference material supplied by the client, It is useful to create both a digital and analogue project file. Creating a new folder, saved on to your hard disk for all correspondence, copies o( emails, and digital reference material is as important as a real-world version. Like an expanded and more focused version of the sketchbook, the project file can encompass everything that relates to, or that could relate to, the project in hand.

the Fundamentals of illustration 31

A useful project file is one that houses every aspect of the project - from relevant pages torn from sketchbooks to a series of photographic reference images, and photocopies from second-hand books to print-outs from Google searches. It is this material that will assist in inspiring ideas - spread out all of your reference materials, notes and written and visual research in front of you whilst you work. The blank sheet of paper or screen will feel less daunting when surrounded by the visual material that has fed into your thinking.

The Creative Environment

Working in a positive environment can do wonders for the generation of creative ideas. Finding a calm, quiet space to retreat to works for most people. Turning the land-line off, silencing a mobile and quitting an email application will alt help to ensure that your time is not interrupted by a constant flow of communication from the outside world. Turn off the radio, the CD player and the TV. and get prepared to think creatively.

Organising a work space, clearing the digital desktop and cleaning the real world desktop all help in metaphorically Ireeing up some fresh space in which to think. Empty the studio bin, open a window and let in some fresh air - make your environment fresh and it will help you reap the rewards.

Some people not only clean and clear, they also re-jig their work spaces at the start of a new project. They reposition their screen, tidy the spaghetti chaos of their computer cables and reorganise their bookcases. Archiving previous projects on to CD or DVD. or filing papers away into their relevant folders can be a real plus too, mentally helping to bring a conclusion to finished work before the fresh start of a brand new project.

Whilst many like to make a hot drink to relax with as they start the thinking process, plenty of others find creative realisation can come from actually leaving the studio environment and having a drink in a local coffee shop or café. There is something unique about sitting with a new project on the table with a pen in one hand and a frothy cappuccino in the other. Being away from normal distractions and focusing the mind on the job in hand can be hugely beneficial.

The more time that you spend working as an illustrator the more you can begin to recognise and then concentrate on the particular ways that best suit your approach to creative thinking. Learn to capitalise on Ihe scenarios and locations that work most effectively for you. If your best ideas come during the afternoon, learn from this and use your mornings to work at other aspects of illustration - the filing, emailing, invoicing, marketing, etc.

Know the point when it is best that you walk away from the process of creating ideas - team to accept when your creative juices are not llowing, Hitting a brick wall or a black hole - call a creative block what you like - is not fun, but it does happen to all of us and on a regular basis too. Banging your head against that wall will not help - getting out for a walk in the fresh air. wandering around an exhibition or catching a movie may be all you need to clear the mind and prepare yourself for another attempt. Knowing when to stop is as vital as knowing how to start.

Most illustrators create their own archives of images and objects, organising their collections into folders, drawers and boxes. These collections can be incredible sources of inspiration.

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Circus Graphics From 1880

A Background to Social Habits and Social History to Eating and Drinking to Travel and Heritage



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Historical accuracy may not be a factor in most illustrations, but whenever a project calls for detailed visual information about a subject, it is wise to undertake some in-depth research, A little like a props and costume assistant in the theatre, the illustrator must ensure that every aspect of the image has undergone careful consideration and is correct for the time and the place.

The images on this page show how the illustrator referenced Victorian typography and poster art. Using expert information will ensure that mistakes are not made.

Project Development Case Study (I)

1. American circus posters

3. Circus alphabets

2 & U. 'Collecting Printed Ephemera'

Additional material collected by Jason Ford to illustrate the short story 'My East End'.




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Circus Graphics From 1880


You should now have a fully-formed project brief, your notes and interpretations from the briefing meeting, a sketchbook with early inspirations and thoughts, your research into the subject area as well as a project file and a fully functioning creative environment to work in What you need now are some ideas!

Brainstorming can mean different things to different people. Simply expressed, it is the action of bringing together all of the research, notes, scribbles and thoughts and creating a series of bigger and more clearly defined ideas and paths to follow. Illustrators, unlike designers, will often have to brainstorm alone - illustration can be a lonely pursuit, as a solo activity there is only one person responsible for the linal outcome, Of course, working with an art director or designer on a project can help, and discussing ideas should be very much part of the process, but ultimately there is only one person creating the initial ideas -you, the illustrator.

An onslaught of ideas and thoughts is Ihe best way to describe how brainstorming should work, Get every idea and thought out and on to paper or screen. Keep your ideas flowing - good ideas, bad ideas, exciting, dull; let them all out. Just like a storm of heavy rain and gusting wind, your brain should be working overtime to produce as much as it can. Examine possibilities, explore links, twist meanings and subvert thoughts - anything goes. To make brainstorming work, you need to have the germs of ideas and lots Of them.

The Investigation of Ideas

There are numerous ways that ideas can take shape after the initial brainstorming exercise. Recognising how to use the raw materials of creative thinking is the next slage in the process. Evaluating and editing your ideas can be just as difficult as the conception. Recognising a strong idea and working it through to a conclusion or following a thread of creative thinking to the next logical stage are all aspects of the process that improve with practice.

Embracing both a sense of realism

- the image must communicate a message after all - and maintaining a high level of creativity can help translate the results of brainstorming into fully-formed concepts. Being realistic means that the wildest, most bizarre and unreadable ideas are kept away from production, Reminding yourself that the work must communicate is about being realistic. On the other hand, being creative means that the work stays fresh, takes risks and feels edgy - you are an artist after all. The right measure of realism and creativity is the goal.

Investigating your ideas and moving them into more concrete forms relies on a variety of means. Looking for connections, bringing words and images together or juxtaposing a number of elements can lead ideas into new directions. Viewing your concepts from an opposing angle can help too - a new perspective on the problem can be a fresh start. The use of colour can affect the mood of the image, whilst using metaphors can shift the emphasis of an idea or concept.

Risk-Taking in Illustration

The lerm risk' implies danger. Let's face it though - to the outside world the very idea that illustrators face risks and dangers on a daily basis is a little preposterous. Where risk-taking does come into effect in illustration is at the point where safe ideas and routes into a project are jettisoned in favour of opting for a less tried and tested route.

Opening new doors into the unknown and facing creative problems head-on without the salety net Of familiarity is about being brave. Flying in the face of conformity and tackling problems within projects with new thinking and, at times, new ways of making images can be the essence of what moves an illustrator's work forward

- staving off the stateness of repetition.

Taking risks is a necessary aspect of creative thinking as well as in image-making itself. The future of an illustrator's career and the future of the discipline, rest on constantly moving forward and exploring new avenues of thinking.


Opening New Doors Pictures

Exploring How Images Work

• Images help an audience perceive an idea and the role of illustration is to bring visual meaning to a given text. Images can be simple, complex, emotional, diagrammatic or documentary. Most importantly they should aim to present a point of view and they should make the viewer think. Images in the context of illustration should be unique - causing the viewer to see something in a way that they normally would not. They should also be emotional, bringing a sense of humanity to the viewer, as well as being appropriate and understandable.

• Visual communication relies on a mix of signs and symbols

- how we 'read' images and how we decode their meanings occurs in a subconscious manner. The voice' inherent within an image is translated by an audience that have learnt how to understand and comprehend visual images through associations built up over the years.

• For an illustrator to bring these elements together into one image is no small achievement

- all inextricably linked to a creative idea too, of course.

Project Development Case Study (III)

1. Initial sketches/visuals 'My East End' for Beat 2 Jason Ford, 2005

Early rough sketches identify a stylistic approach and aspects of the subject matter. These drawings are quick studies and a method for generating ideas through visual exploration. Nothing is decided nor rejected at this stage - everything still counts.

A stale illustrator will produce stale images. Often the greatest enemy of fresh original thinking is not the client, but the illustrator themselves. Having fallen into a formulaic 'style' of work, their approach to ideas, generation and thinking relies too heavily on cliches without pushing into cleverer and more challenging areas. It is wise to recognise the symptoms and work hard to ensure - through constant exposure to new materials, reference and research - that making illustrations remains a challenge.

Only through stepping into unchartered territories can new discoveries be made that will ultimately take one's work forward. On occasion, taking risks can lead to frustrations as not every attempt will come to fruition. Learning to recognise the pitfalls as well as the rewards is the first stage in facing the challenge however.

Ideas into Visuals and Roughs

It is one thing to get through the stages of ideas-generation intact and find a level of thinking and visual representation that you feet happy is solving the project brief. It is another stage of work to ensure that your client, and often their client, is as keen on your approach and has as much faith in the work as you do yourself.

It is extremely rare to be given complete freedom with a project, or be allowed to rush straight into creating finished artwork without supplying or presenting visuals that describe your thinking and the route that you'll be taking to construct that final artwork.

A visual or 'rough', as it is sometimes called, should ideally be a sketch that demonstrates loosely the elements that will appear in the work, although nothing will be completed in any great detail at this stage. Unfortunately, the ideal is now becoming threatened as more and more commissioners have started to expect visuals with more and more detail explored. This may be a reaction to the number of illustrators now creating images on screen. Clients can and will demand changes because they believe that the work can be modified by the illustrator easily on a computer. Expectations of more polished and finished visuals have been led by the growth in digital hardware and software - the equipment has created a culture where perfection is now a given.


Jason Ford Illustrator East End

Project Development Case Study (IV)

1, Initial compositions 'My East End' for Beat 2 Jason Ford. 2005

The next stage in developing the illustration is to work with the independently created elements and visuals from the sketch stage, to build up a range of test compositions. It helps to give your compositions a space to occupy - a simple drawn rectangular line around the image shows the edge of the page or the image. Cropping into particular details can provide a more dynamic focus - practice this with two L-shaped pieces of card to frame different aspects of your work.

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Explaining the Visual

More often than not, once a set of ideas has been fine-tuned into a definitive route forward, the visual will be emailed to the client for consideration. Obviously with bigger projects, a face-to-face meeting may well be set up, but 95% of all visuals wilt arrive without the benefit of a verbal explanation as accompaniment. Blankly sending a visual via email without a text explaining the route that you have taken with the brief can easily result in a negative response to your work. This wilt not always happen, but why take that risk? Courtesy, if nothing else, determines that it is a good idea to explain what your client is looking at.

Write a simple and concise explanation of the work explaining your thinking and detail what will change in the process of moving from visual to final artwork. Make reference to colours and textures that may change and note where elements will require further work - perhaps more detailed drawing will be required in some areas lor example. Keep the commissioner in the loop by explaining your thinking and ideas a little. Highlight the key elements in the brief that you felt required exploring and expanding upon. Remember your client: the designer, art director or art buyer is likely to have to present your visual to someone else too. It may go to an editor or a more senior creative director and it may have to be shown to a client that is not as visually aware as the designer that you are working with. If you are working on an advertising campaign, for example, your work may be presented to a team from the company thai the advertising agency is working for, They could be the marketing department from a shoe or a washing detergent manufacturers - not necessarily the ideal audience to comprehend a rough visual working of an idea!

If you do get the opportunity to present your work in person, even at the visuals stage - leap at it. Getting some valuable experience of explaining your work is crucial. Offer to meet with clients if and when you can. Sitting down and talking face-to-face at both a briefing meeting and al the visuals stage can really iron out any slight misinterpretations from either side of the fence.

When speaking about your ideas and visual approach, be confident, speak clearly and use the visual to illustrate your explanations, If you get nervous in meeting situations, make some notes before you arrive - work out what you wish to say and don't be afraid to follow your notes. Be prepared to discuss and talk through

your work and to take on board relevant considerations and comments from those looking at your work. Try to react positively to advice and criticism about the work so far. Don't take any criticism of your thinking personally, further work may well be needed to help the illustration solve the brief in a way that the client is happy with. Take notes and be civit, but if you believe that you have valid points - make sure that you voice them: you will be respected for doing so. An illustrator should bring a different viewpoint and perspective to a project - stand up for yourself and have a strong belief in your contribution.

Project Development Case Study (IV)

Jason Ford Illustrator

1 & 2. Test compositions 'My East End' for Beat 2 Jason Ford, 2005

Here a more fully worked version of a composition starts to take shape. The image is still very much in the developmental stage - all the line work has been created with pencil on layout paper. This relies on rubbing out to remove unwanted elements or those that require redrawing.

Don't take any criticism of your thinking personally, further work may well he needed to help the illustration solve the brief in a way that the client is happy with.

Jason Ford Illustrations

Project Development Case Study (V)

1. Adding colour to the composition 'My East End' for Beat 2 Jason Ford, 2005

A version created using detailed black line-work in place is scanned into Photoshop and colour digitally added. Two Versions are tested - altering colours and saving new files being a simple process digitally. Note how the simple use of light and shade on the clouds, for example, gives the image a greater depth and sense of perspective.

Project Development Case Study (VI)

1. Client approval 'My East End' for Beat 2 Jason Ford, 2005

Even at what appears to be such a late stage in the development of the work, the client requested changes, wanting the image to have a more modern, upbeat and comical feel. Further black-and-white developmental sketches were produced and shown to the client before commencing the final artwork. The final piece certainly has a more engaging feel, but still reflects the research and investigation conducted earlier.




1950 Illustration




Ensuring that you develop a long-standing career in illustration can't be reduced down to just one or two factors. Like many things, it can be a mixture of talent, luck and circumstances - right place, right time. Increasing the chances of a successful and lengthy career can, however, be accomplished,

Working hard at creating images that have a personality, have something to say and can communicate to a given audience, can be a big part of the game plan, With strong creative thinking supporting illustrations that work visually, the future can be so much brighter.

Jason Ford Illustrations1950 Illustration

A Life's Work - Jason Ford

1. Sketchbook study Uncommissioned, 1990

2. Series of Children's Books Egmont Books, 2003

3. Sketchbook study Uncommissioned, 1995

4. Newspaper Supplement Cover The Guardian, 1996

5. Newspaper Supplement Cover The Independent, 2004

6. Newspaper Supplement Cover The Guardian, 2000

7. Newspaper Supplement Cover The Evening Standard, 1997

Jason Ford has worked as an illustrator since graduating from the Royal College of Art in London in 1989. Working initially in editorial publishing, Ford went on to expand his client base with commissions from book publishers, design companies and advertising agencies. The secret of Ford's success in building and maintaining such a fruitful Career has been in the combination of both strength of thinking - the ideas and concepts within his work - aligned with the unique personality and flair in his drawing and execution.

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2. Promotional packaging Vodafone, 2001

3. Billboard advertising campaign American Airlines, 1998

4. Editorial commission

The Observer Wine Review, 2001

5. Agency promotion and exhibition Art Directors Club of New York, 2003

6. Exhibition catalogue

Rogues Gallery, Pentagram, 2002

Jason Ford Art

A Life's Work - Jason Ford

1. Cassette case cover BBC Worldwide Ltd, 2000

2. Promotional packaging Vodafone, 2001

3. Billboard advertising campaign American Airlines, 1998

4. Editorial commission

The Observer Wine Review, 2001

5. Agency promotion and exhibition Art Directors Club of New York, 2003

6. Exhibition catalogue

Rogues Gallery, Pentagram, 2002

Pentagrams Pencil DrawingsWine Billboard Ideas


Illustrators communicate solely through their work; their subject matter and the strength of their ideas are vital aspects of the job. Less obvious, but as crucial, is the choice of medium, and use of materials is as essential as researching a subject and generating ideas and visual metaphors.

The Power of the Pencil

Material World

Art School Ethos

Illustration as a Discipline

A Demanding Life

Mixing Media

The Digital Divide

The New Wave of Illustrators

The Power of the Pencil

A common belief amongst graphic designers is that because the power Of typography is entrusted to them atone, they hold all of the cards in the game of commercial design for print and screen. A tittle-known, or perhaps just rarely commented-upon fact that matches or even surpasses the claim to type by the designer is that the illustrator commands the power of the pencil. The pencil, and with it the activity of drawing in its broadest sense, is what defines the practice of illustration today.

It is hard to believe, but drawing can be a controversial subject. From the start of the journey from school pupil to art student and on to fully paid-up member of the illustration community, the practice of drawing can cause heated debate amongst practitioners. Art school teaching may seem radically different to students from the way in which they had been taught' previously. The use of new terminology also rellecls a new stance and approach to this complex subject thai may feel alien at first. The new vocabulary introduces phrases such as interpretative mark marking', intuitive and observational drawing of the figure', and exploring negative space'. For the first time, students may be encouraged to 'work back into a drawing with charcoal'. The essence of this approach to image-making' is to encourage experiment, rather than just training students in observational skills. This approach has typified the teaching of the subject since the 1950s and '60s.

The teaching of drawing will vary from art school to art school and may be influenced by fashions and movements in art and design. Although it might appear that artists and illustrators both approach the discipline from similar positions, Ihe reality is somewhat different. Opinions are divided on the purpose of practice.

Generally, however, artists work to a self-set agenda, whilst illustrators start Irom a client-written brief. The artist may create work as part of the journey to the final solution, whilst the illustrator will produce work that ultimately sits within another context; that of the printed magazine or book jacket, reproduced from the original.

Drawing can be used for recording, representing and portraying. It can be observational or interpretative, can reflect a mood or a moment, or be utilised to purely convey information. Drawing is a hugely broad discipline and in the context of illustration, in the hands of illustrators, it is pushed to its very limits.

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Illustration Convey Information

2, Coloured pencil on paper

'Bunting' Andrew Brandou, 2004

3. Coloured pencil on paper


Andrew Brandou, 2004

Bringing colour into a pencil-drawn illustration can be as straightforward as working with a range of coloured pencils. Although a traditional technique, it requires a unique understanding of the medium, built up through many years of practice.

1. Pen on paper with Photoshop reworking 'Louis' for 34 Magazine James Taylor, 2004

The simplest, yet most unforgiving medium is the pencil. There is very little room for error - an illustration rests on the artist's skills and ability. Photoshop may be used to clean and tidy up an image, but strong drawing techniques are the essence of the image.

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From the start of the journey from school pupil to art student and on to fully paid-up member of the illustration community, the practice of drawing can cause heated debate amongst practitioners.

1. Biro pen on paper 'Vandal' for Nike Billie-Jean, 2004

2. Biro pen on school desk Back to the Old School' for Pentagram UK Exhibition Billie-Jean, 2003

Some materials bring a certain substance to a project - the use of the ballpoint pen on lined paper evokes memories of doodling in school exercise books, whilst used to draw directly on to an old school desk, a real sense of the past is executed and recreated for an exhibition.

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1880 School Desk

3. Pencil, pen and Adobe Streamline into vinyl graphic In-store graphic for Carhartt JAke, 2004

4. Pencil in sketchbook

Study for in-store graphic for Carhartt JAke, 2004

Working sketches can form the basis of the final artwork for many projects - keeping the essence of spontaneity. Translating pencil-drawn images into larger wall or window graphics, for example, can be an interesting process. By taking original drawings into an application such as Streamline, converting into a vector line and then outputting on to vinyl, the image can then be adhered to a flat surface.

You Trying Too Hard Matt Sewell

5. Pen on paper 'You're Trying Too Hard" Matt Sewell, 2005

Subtle use of colour can highlight key areas within the image. Knowing when ,,and where it pays dividends to use colour sparingly comes with practice and experience - sometimes less is more.

Smirnoff Neal Murren

1. Pencil drawing 'Norsk Tales' for Smirnoff Neal Murren, 2004

2. Digital colouring 'Norsk Tales' for Smirnoff Neal Murren, 2004

Pencil drawings can also be coloured entirely on-screen in software applications such as Adobe Photoshop, giving freedom and flexibility to make changes and alterations throughout the project.


Material World

The job of the illustrator is relatively simple; the key to successful illustrating is in the essence of the message and the art of communication, as discussed in the previous chapter. It is, however, the medium or materials employed to convey that message that can assist in the correct reading and understanding. A strong idea visually translated using the most appropriate media, with excellent execution, will always lead to the most successful illustrative solutions.

With Ihe apparent freedom of choice in medium that the illustrator has access to, comes a responsibility and understanding for the context in which they are to be applied and the historical or cultural nature of the materials and their usage in previous incarnations. There is little to be gained from illustrating mobile phone technology, for example, using an etching process. Working in a very linear way only in a vector application for an article about street market vendors would not demonstrate an affinity for the subject: the themes and messages would be distorted, and the medium might act as a barrier to the understanding of the message.

Equally, acknowledging historical and subject-specific references to materials ensures messages cannot be confused; why work in the flat, bold, primary-coloured comic style reminiscent of Roy Lichtenstein's Pop Art interpretations of comics for an illustration about the global

3. Screenprint-inspired Photoshop collage 'Gaming' for New Scientist Magazine Simon Pemberton, 2004

Recreating Lichtenstein Pop Art

3. Screenprint-inspired Photoshop collage 'Gaming' for New Scientist Magazine Simon Pemberton, 2004

Taking inspiration from working methods such as screenprinting can provide a rich resource. Recreating analogue print techniques in digital formats saves time, resources and can make the impossible possible.

How Draw Litchensteins Drawings

stock markets? The perfect marriage of materials and message may sound like a cliché but makes real sense; after all, the mantra that form follows function' still holds a resonance today.

At the heart of all illustration, drawing plays a vital role. Without the ability to draw and visualise well the illustrator lacks the most important component in his or her toolbox. Illustrators have at their fingertips, literally in this increasingly digital age, tools that enable the creation of complex, layered, multifaceted images that can be created using a multitude of techniques, but without the power of the pencil, the illustrator may be as powerless as the designer that has failed to control typography.

1. Digital collage


Michiko Tachimoto, 2004

2. Digital collage

Michiko Tachimoto, 2004

Working in digital formats allows for the constant addition and subtraction of collage elements within a piece of work, Non-digitat formats rarely allow for the 2. constant moving of images in such a fully flexible fashion.


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3. Digital drawing

'Bear and Hunter' for Sky+ Adrian Johnson, 2004

4. Digital drawing 'Darts' for Estates Gazette Adrian Johnson, 2004

5. Digital drawing 'Robot' for The Guardian Adrian Johnson, 2004

Even when based on pencil drawings or original layouts created in sketchbooks, work that uses digital elements - be that anything from vector lines or scanned textures - is still classified as being done entirely on-screen,

Celebrating Process

The process of creating images is a complex and personal journey for every individual illustrator. Often seemingly simple images can belie both the craft of the image-maker and the journey that the illustrator may have taken over previous years in order to reach a point where creating work becomes second-nature. Art school graduates of illustration courses often expect an instant flow of commissions, but it can take numerous months and occasionally years in honing and fine-tuning work before an image-maker feels truly confident as an illustrator.

Much of the struggle towards professionalism can be about the materials and processes that the illustrator starts to excel in working with; understanding how to use particular media can rake time and practice, but is vital in mastering the ability to illustrate effectively and therefore professionally.

Many illustrators have a favourite range of materials that they will choose to work with. For many, the blend and scope of their chosen materials, tools and techniques is what helps to define the work rliat they produce. Experimenting with techniques and ways of working can he more important than exploring the scope of drawing and image-making itself. There are illustrators that work using the most simple methods imaginable -using a pencil, pen or paintbrush mark - whilst there are others that build up complex layers utilising techniques in photography, vector-applications and scanned montages of 'found' imagery, often priding themselves with their ability to hide the processes from the viewer. Ir is the celebration of the process and the techniques employed that interest and drive this particular breed of illustrators.


Celebrating Process

1. 3D Constructed collage 'East' for an exhibition Paul Burgess, 1995

2. Painting and collage

'Park 'n' Ride' for solo exhibition Paul Burgess, 2004

Working with 3D elements and collaged elements can mean having to photograph final results for reproduction. Lighting a constructed 3D image correctly is as vital as reproducing the brush marks in a collage that uses a 'found' thrift-store painting.

3. Hand painting and digital collage 'Thinktank' for Tom Brown

Brian Cairns, 2003

A. Hand painting and digital collage 'You' for Tom Brown Brian Cairns, 2003

5. Hand painting and digital collage 'Dog' for Ski Magazine

Brian Cairns, 2004

6. Hand painting and digital collage on T-shirt Trees = Air' for Howies Brian Cairns, 2004

Using digital processes should not hinder immediate-looking results - using a mix of hand-drawn images with hand-rendered type, painted textures and photographs gives a sketch-book quality to an illustration.

•Methods and ways of working can take many years to fine-tune and make unique to an individual illustrator.

• There is always the temptation to take creative short-cuts - it's better to invest the time and effort in creating a way of working that no one else is doing though,

• Finding materials and processes that 'click' is part of the journey that all professional illustrators must take in order to create truly unique images.

• Increasingly illustrators are employing a range of methods and techniques that cross the divide between both analogue and digital worlds.

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Pencil Drawing Beginners Guide

Pencil Drawing Beginners Guide

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