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Here the camera lends us a helping hand by showing the "actual" light as it falls on a simplified form. The form has been rounded to give you the gradation from light through halftone to shadow. Number 1 is a front lighting, corresponding to the treatment of a flat and unshaded outline drawing. The only shadow, under the chin, occurs because the light was raised a little to allow the camera to be placed under it. Camera and light, of course, could not have been placcd in the identical spot. Had this been possible, there would have been no shadow. An all-flat or formless lighting may be obtained by piling in equal lighting from every direction (Number 8).

When there is a single source of light on the object, the shadowed side reflects some of the light in a luminous manner. The reflected-light areas within the shadow, however, never become competitive with the areas in light, and the unity of the mass of light as opposed to the mass of shadow is maintained. In drawing nothing within a shadow area should ever be as light as that within a light area, because reflected light is never so strong as its source. One exception might be the use of a mirror. That, however, would be a duplication of the light source rather than reflection (refraction). The dazzling light upon water is another example of refraction.

Simple lighting, which means lighting from a single sourcc, and the rcflcctcd light of that source, is the most perfect lighting there is. It renders form in its actual contours and bulk. True modeling of form cannot be approached any other way, since to change the normal or true value of the plane is to change and upset the form; if the value is "off," the form is incorrect. Since the photographer may not have reasoned this out, it is better to make your own photographs, or at least supervise the lighting of any photographic copy. The photographer hates shadows; the artist loves them.

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Templates For Drawing Caricatures

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