humps and bumps are—and why they are there. Otherwise your drawing will have the look of inflated rubber, or a wax department-store dummy. The final work 011 any commission of importance should be drawn from a model or good copy of some kind, since it must compete with the work of men who use models and good copy. Most artists own and operate a camera as a help. But it will not do the whole job. Outlines traced from a photograph, l>ccause of the exaggerated foreshortening by the lenses, have a wide and dumpy look. Limbs look short and heavy. Hands and feet appear too large. If these distortions are not corrected, your drawing will simply look photographic.
It might be well to mention here some of the requirements of successful figure drawing. The "smart" female figure has some mannish contours. The shoulders are drawn a little wider than normal, without much slope, the hips a little narrower. The thighs and legs are made longer and more slender, with tapering calves. When the legs are together, they should touch at the thigh, knee, and ankle. The knees should be small. The leg is elongated from the knee down with small ankles. It is merely a waste of time to show an art director a figure that l(x>ks large-headed, narrow-shouldered, short-armed or -legged, wide-hipped, short, fat, dumpy, or pudgy. But a figure may Ik? actually bony and unusually tall and still please a fashion editor.
Slimncss in figure drawing has become almost a cult. What the artists of the Middle Ages considered voluptuous appeal would be plain fat today. Nothing will kill a sale so quickly as fatness or shortness. (It is a curious fact that short people are apt to draw short figures. A man with a short wife will tend to draw short women.) If my figures seem absurdly tall, remember that I am giving you the conception acccptcd as a standard. They will not look too tall to the art buyer. In fact, some of my figures here are even
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