Now Take A Common Object

50 » IN DKAWrMQ WE MOST ALWAYS T^V TO FEEL THE MIDDLE CONTOURS AS WELL A5 THE EDGES. THE OUTLINES ALONE CAN 5UC1GEST SOLIDITY. WATCH HOW EDGES' PASS ONE ANOTHER

THE OUTLINES" OF EACH PLANE MAY BEVERY DIFFERENT, BUT PUT TOGETHER, FORM TME SOLID.

FLAT SOL\D

THIS WILL NOT BE EASY UNTIL YOU BECOME ABLE TO THINK ALL AROUND THE THING YOU HAPPEN TO BE DRAWlNG,TRULY KNOWING ALLOF THE FOR-M»

The foregoing has given us a general framework to which wc can now add a simplification of the bulk or solid aspect of the figure. It would be both tedious and superfluous if, every time we drew a figure; we went through the whole procedure of figure drawing. The artist will want to make roughs and sketches that can serve as an understructure for pose or action—perhaps to cover with clothing, perhaps to work out a pose that he will finish with a model. We must have some direct and quick way of indicating or setting up an experimental figure — one with which wc can tell a story. The figure set up as suggested in the following pages will usually suffice. Properly done, it can always be developed into the more finished drawing. When you are drawing a mannikin figure, you need not be greatly concerncd with the actual muscles or how they affect the surface. The mannikin in drawing is used much as is a "lay" figure, to indicate joints and the general proportion of framework and masses.

The mannikin serves a double purpose here. I believe that the student will do much better to set up the figure this way and get the "feel" of its parts in action than to begin at once with the live model. It will not only serve for rough sketches but will also become an ideal approach to the actual drawing of the figure from life or copy. If you have the frame and masses to begin with, you can later break them down into actual bone and muscle. Then you can more easily grasp the placing and functions of the musclcs and what they do to the surface. I am of the opinion that to teach anatomy before proportion—before bulk and mass and action—is to put the cart before the horse. You cannot draw a muscle correctly without a fair estimate of the area it occupies within the figure, without an understanding of why it is there and of how it works.

Think of the figure in a plastic sense, or as something with three dimensions. It has weight that must be held up by a framework which is extremely mobile. The fleshy masses or bulk follows the frame. Some of these masses are knit together quite closely and adhere to the bony structure, whereas other masses are full and thick and will be affected in appearance by action.

If you have never studied anatomy, you may not know that the musclcs fall naturally into groups or chunks attached in certain ways to the frame. We will not treat their physiological detail here, but consider them merely as parts interlocked or wedged together. Hence the human figure looks very much like our mannikin. The thorax, or chest, is egg-shaped and, as far as we arc concerned, hollow. Over it is draped a cape of muscle extending across the chest and down the back to the base of the spine. Over the cape, in front, lie the shoulder muscles. The buttocks start halfway around in back, from the hips, and slant downward, ending in rather square creases. A V is formed by the slant above the middle crease. There is actually a V-shapcd bone here, wedged between the two pelvic bones that support the spine. The chest is joined to the hips by two masses on either side. In back the calf wedges into the thigh, and in front there is the bulge of the knee.

Learn to draw this mannikin as well as you can. You will use it much more often than a careful anatomical rendering. Since it is in proportion in bulk and frame, it may also be treated in perspective. No artist could possibly afford a model for all his rough preliminary work—for layouts and ideas. Yet he cannot intelligently approach his final work without a preliminary draft. If only art directors would base their layouts on such mannikin figures, the finished figures would all stand on the same floor, and heads would not run off the page when drawn correctly.

the GROUPS Of muscles simplified.

Low Poly ModelSimplified Muscle Layout

DEVELOPING THE PREVIOUS FRAME WITH SIMPLIFIED MUSCLE GROUPS LAlcToN TOP.

The Principle Arts ProportionThe Mannikin Frame
a simpler. mannikin if the other is too difficult.

WE-WilL STUDY THE "ACTUAL" BONE AND MUSCLE CONSTRUCTION LATER GET THIS .

Ideal Proportions

from this yoocet the principle op perspective in the round forms on the ficcr.e .

HERE. IS AGR0OP OP CYLINOERS .NOTE HOW THE ELI.! PSE.5 NARROW OOWN AS THEY NEARTHE EYE LEVEL,EITHER FROM ABOVE BELOW.

from this yoocet the principle op perspective in the round forms on the ficcr.e .

TRY DRAWING YOUR MANN I KIN FlGURETOTHE HOR-IZ.ON

Foreshortening Body

THEARCSOFi^OVEf^ENT CAN BE DRAWN FIRST,TO GET THE LENGTH OF A FORESHORTENED LIMB IN PER SPECTIVE,SIMPLIFYING AOlFFI-_^CUL*T PROBLEM,

THE EYE ALONE WILL BE. ENOUGH TO DETERMINE THE ARCS. PRAW THEM UNTIL THEY*SEEM RIGHT?

Perspective Human Figure

FROM this maw

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Responses

  • Judith Jones
    How to draw anime in foreshortening?
    7 years ago
  • ulrich
    How to draw a sketch foreshortening?
    7 years ago

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