Before you undertake to draw from the living model, be sure you have absorbed all the preliminaries so far discussed. These are:
The proportions of the idealized figure The general framework The relationship of perspective to the figure Movement and action
The mannikin and simplified building of the form
The anatomic construction
The fundamentals of light and shadow The true modeling of form
Now when you have to draw something set up in front of you, you must possess still another fundamental skill—intelligent measurement. I say "intelligent" because your aim is not mere duplication.
Suppose you begin to draw a husky young man, arms uplifted, whom you want to interpret in terms of light, halftone, and shadow. You have set your light source low and to the right, so that there will be a varied play of light across the form. First, look for the area of greatest light. It is found on the chest under the left arm of the model. Now look for the whole mass of light as opposed to the whole mass of shadow. Sketch in the contours of the figure and block in these masses. (On page S3 you will find the halftones added and the shadows relatively darkened.) 1 suggest that you use the point of your pencil for the contours and the side of the lead for the massing of the halftone and shadow. When you are drawing with a pen, shadows and halftones can be achieved only by combinations of lines. But a brush or pencil adapts itself to mass. Observe, too, that the grain of your paper will add to or detract from the attractiveness of the texture of the drawing. Because of the method of reproduction, a coated, smooth paper could not be used for the drawings in this l>ook. Beautiful grays and darks are possible, however, on the smooth papers if the side of a soft lead pencil is used. The halftones and darks may be produced in either pencil or charcoal by rubbing with the finger or a stump of paper. The whole figure drawing may be rubbed with a rag and the lights picked out with a kneaded eraser.
On pages 86 and 87, look over my shoulder as 1 proceed with my own method for drawing a figure. On page 88 sec a plan of approach that I call the "visual survey." It is less complicated than it looks, for T have included visual measurement lines that, ordinarily, are not set down. It is a plan of finding level points and plumb points and the angles established by sighting a continuation of the line to see where it emerges. This is the only plan I know that can be depended upon to offer any degree of accuracy in freehand drawing.
It is easiest to sight in vertical and horizontal lines, so that important points directly across or under each other are quickly "checked." When a point falls outside the figure, such as a hand, angles of points within tile figure will help to find it. When you have correctly placed one point, proceed to others, and finally your drawing will check with the model. This principle, also illustrated on page 89, applies to any subject before you and provides a valuable means of corroborating the accuracy of your drawing.
when drawing from life or. photos, draw the contours of the halftone and shadow max 5e s. study all the
SURFACE AREAS AND DECIDE TO WHAT CLASS EACH AREA BELONGS. IS IT LIGHT, HALFTONE^ SHADOW, REFLECT OR. CAST SHADOW ?
a light b halftone b+ dk. halftone c shadow d reflect e cast shadow
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