Human Anatomy and Physiology Study Course
By canon we mean the guiding code which establishes by means of mathematical rules the ideal proportions of the human body, dividing it into standard units of measure. From antiquity the human body has been a subject of study for many scientists and artists who have established canons of proportion suitable for the age in which they lived and for the conception of the Figure prevailing at the time.
There is no greater pleasure or challenge in the world of art than to draw the human figure. In this chapter, you will be introduced to various approaches to drawing this very special subject. Gallery . Human Figure Drawings 254 Drawing the human figure is an excellent way to improve and expand on your observational drawing skills. In Chapter 11, you were advised to draw a portrait of a real person in front of you and not use a photograph to draw from. Drawing from a live model is a good foundation on which to build your drawing skills and your skills of observation. Drawing from a live model will also enable you to understand what is in front of your eyes from many different angles. Model Drawing the Human Figure chapter M This example shows the best lighting situation for a beginner. Remember that light reveals form. When drawing the human figure, the same principles that were discussed in Chapter 5 also apply here. The only difference is that there is a lot more information in the...
Before we start, I'd like to point out that knowledge of human anatomy is not a replacement for studying the body from real life or photos. So keep cranking out those sketches (And hoarding those Victoria's Secret catalogs and similar magazines. Strictly for reference, of course.) But it will help you to recognize the features you are drawing, and it will certainly come in handy when you don't have a perfect ref to work from.
Drawing the human figure in colour provides certain obstacles for you to conquer before you become really proficient. One major fact is that coloration of the human body encompasses a wide spectrum. There are few truly strong colours in the human skin range, but a host of very subtle tones. Your models will need patience, as it takes time to produce a good representation of the human body. A life class at a local art institute is one of the best ways of learning to draw the human figure and the experience will never be wasted. But even without tuition, you can still prevail upon friends and relations to sit for you. Change the poses frequently - standing up, lying down and positions where the body is extended and curled up in turn all help to increase your range. And remember to look carefully at limbs and torso when they appear foreshortened, in order to see how much the shapes of the body alter when seen from different angles.
Proportions of the human body Figure 2.1. Proportions of the human body The human body is usually measured in units of heads. Most adults are around seven and a half heads high, but for practical and aesthetic reasons most diagrams show eight heads. It's not a big deal, just remember the head can be slightly larger in real life.
The human body in its volumetric representation is made up of spherical, cylindrical, and orthogonal surfaces. These shapes are the foundation for drawing the extremities, head, and torso. If the body changes position, all we have to do is adjust the point of view of the rectangles, cubes, or cylinders.
One of the greatest problems in drawing seated or reclining figures is foreshortening representing the human figure or one of its parts in perspective. The art of foreshortening consists of representing the human body from points of view at which its dimensions are diminished by perspective. But foreshortening is not the same as ordinary perspective there is no need for vanishing points or any of the methods employed in linear perspective.
We suggest a very simple exercise that consists of representing the human figure in the chosen pose by drawing the different chiaroscuro values of the shapes that surround the model, without using lines to give them their counters simply using hatching based on tracings that reduce the contours of the body. We realize it isn't easy to separate the figure from space, but with a bit of concentration and practice it can be done.
The finished or descriptive drawing presents the visible reality of the figure in a way that shows off the mastery and ability of the artist. The radicalization of the analytical function magnifies the finished effect of the drawing. The profile of a descriptive figure tends to be linear and closed, leaving 110 space for improvisation and subjectivity it is limited to the re-creation of visual experience. Descriptive drawings display a constant effort to forsake convention and give greater importance to meticulous analysis, so that the drawings translate into an exact rendering of the human figure.
At the very end of the arms are the hands. The human hand has nearly as many important expressive possibilities as the face. The hand is the part of the body that offers the greatest number of different positions. It's important to master its structure and shape, because when drawing the human figure, the hands and feet often end up in very poor shape. The neophyte will often forego the former, or merely suggest their shape, putting them inside a pocket or hiding them behind the model's back.
Drawing the human body requires the artist to gather all of her skills in working with real form and volume. As a subject, the human figure requires that we put into practice an entire set of representational skills as we arrange the limbs in a proportional relationship to the body it also requires the representation of volumes, articulations, planes, and simple forms and their combination into more complex ones. Once we can accurately render the human figure, it is safe to say that we can also take on any other subject, no matter how complicated it may appear. Starting from a simple outline, we can make a geometric sketch of the human body. A drawing of the human figure should start with ail oval representing the head, and then a vertical line for the body. We then add the thorax and the line of the hips, which connects the upper and lower extremities. Starting from a simple outline, we can make a geometric sketch of the human body. Here's a strategy for approaching the challenges of...
Drawing in soft lines is in large part a synthetic exercise in selecting contours. Linear synthesis plays an important practical role when drawing the human figure because it allows us to quickly render a figure in a spontaneous attitude at any time or place. A synthetic figure or scene contains all the necessary information for the viewer to recognize the figure's different actions and gestures, capturing the grace of its motion. A few spots are sufficient for suggesting the human anatomy. If we want to shade quickly we can use the classic gray hatching, which consists of stretches of parallel marks. Notice how the lighted areas are left blank, with barely any lines or marks.
The law of proportion for the human figure is based on a unit of measurement that corresponds precisely to the measurements of the head. According to the classical laws of proportion, the total height of the human body should be equal to seven and a half heads, or seven and a half units. Praxiteles s law established a new idealization of the human body according to this model, the total height of the human body must equal eight heads. In the early twentieth century, scientific analysis set the proper height of the human body at eight and a half heads. All of these models are valid, but for our purposes, we will use the measurement of eight heads to simplify our study of the academic figure. Often, artists will use a law of proportion based on ten heads for the human body, suggesting a more stylized, elongated figure with a more expressionistic character.
In any given era, learning to draw the human figure, whether nude or clothed, is perhaps the foremost goal of any painter. The nude is the most beautiful and complex of subjects, and is often considered the artist's greatest challenge. Although drawing the nude figure is widely considered to be very difficult, it is in fact generally easier than than a portrait, because it does not require that the artist focus on facial details.
Drawing the human figure requires a curious gaze and a will to keep practicing even if our first drawings fail. Observing and drawing the human figure regularly allows us to adjust our visual memory to physical forms, body language, and facial expressions in different situations. The popularity that drawing the human figure has achieved over the course of history is reason enough to attract the artist to its practice. Drawing with the perfection that we observe in the great masters is a seemingly difficult task, for there are technical challenges in drawing the human figure that are absent with other subjects.This compels us to put into practice everything we know about drawing in order to adequately solve such problems as the proportion of the limbs in relation to the whole body and the representation of volume Joints, and muscle tone. Drawing the human body presents a greater challenge than any other subject, because both artist and viewer are intimately familiar with the body's...
Representations of the human body are rarely symmetrical. Artists always try to draw the model when it is out of balance, making a motion with its arms, or in a determinate position. The frontal, symmetrical view is used only in handbooks for studying the body's proportions and practicing drawing in general, and is rarely represented outside this context.
I11 a flat representation and in a frontal view, the human body shows a series of visible correspondences and symmetries that give the figure a great sense of compensated equilibrium. For this analysis, the most important line is the one that divides the human figure in two when viewed from the front.
The shape of the human body depends a great deal on its structure, so an artist's knowledge of anatomy is useful though not necessary when he attempts to draw a human figure correctly If you have 110 knowledge of anatomy, observation and synthesis is also a good way. Learning to observe your model is fundamental for understanding how the figure is articulated, and synthesis is essential for summarizing or breaking down a subject to its essential parts, into the elements of the figure that have a plastic and pictorial value and into the things that convey the presence and attitude of the figure. The power of synthesis is an enormously useful tool for drawing, because it allows the artist to quickly represent a figure in a spontaneous attitude at any place or time.
A drawing is considered ill-proportioned when the figure's head appears larger than normal, or when the arms seem too long or too short- in other words, when the figure deviates from what we consider normal.To avoid disproportionality, we look to the laws of proportion as represented in an idealized, conventional drawing of the human form, in other words, one which possesses a perfect relationship between the body's measures. The way we represent the human figure today is based on a Greco-Roman model, the classical Greek law of proportion, which was adopted by the Romans and later resurfaced during the Renaissance after centuries of disuse. The law of proportion based on eight heads yields a proportionate representation of the human body. The division of the body into units serves as a reference for correctly distributing each clement of the body.
The shape of the human body depends a great deal on its structure, so when you try to draw a figure correctly, it is essential to understand your model's anatomical features and physical complexion, which are specific to their age and body type, in order to personalize the figure.
Lines that define the shape of the human body are those we most notice. The human body is our yard-stick. To decide how big or far away something is we can have someone stand beside it. We quickly learn to recognize the human form, above all else, as our pre-emminent shape, then we may look for details, male, female, child, adult or aged. We have a great commonality of experience when differentiating the subtleties of the human body, and so it is with drawng. There are many lines or edges in nature but our understanding of them evolves from our first understanding of the lines that define the human body. STUDENT ACTIVITY Make your own series of four drawings of some part of the human anatomy that ages. Teachers should be careful not to discourage the more outrageous selections, but once started the pupil should be made to finish (or explain why not). Allow 40min.
All human populations show a wide variety of physical structure and proportions, and of facial features. But this does not mean that, in drawing the human figure, we can carelessly perpetrate distortions and inaccuracies which can then be conveniently explained away as the unremarkable anatomical peculiarities one should expect to find in any single human being. Variations in physique and facial appearance occur in quite specific ways, and so individuals tend to conform to recognizable physical and facial types - albeit a very wide range of them.
Anyone who has tried to draw the human figure has quickly learned that the hand is among the most complex of the body forms. To draw the hand accurately and with precision, you must know how to relate the individual parts to each other and how to unify the separate elements- A knowledge of proportions is necessary in art and should be used as a learning stage to new expressive adventures. This chapter will introduce essential measuring cues and their use in drawing the hand in correct proportion. Once the interrelated measurements are understood, you can create dynamic and alive hands without needing a model. You will also see the underlying symmetry and unity of the structures of the hand.
The human figure is built for action, and the best approach to the study of anatomy is that which constantly relates the anatomy of the figure to the possibility of movement. The shapes of the body in action are entirely different from those of the dormant body. It is the gesture that gives everything its shape. The bones and muscles have been modelled into their form by action, through centuries of existence, and those forms are not static. If anatomy were illogical it would be terribly difficult, but this basis of action makes it logical. What you need mainly to know is the movement of the figure and its limitations where it can and cannot move.
The strength of this book lies in the fact that so many people have been so generous with their time, knowledge, resources, and collections. I thank Stuart Pivar, founder of the New York Academy of Art, who provided an environment for me to teach animal and human anatomy to artists. He strongly supported the acquisition of an anatomical collection of comparative skeletons, related artwork, anatomical models and charts, and the use of dissection as part of the curriculum, which allowed me to create an anatomical teaching facility of the highest caliber with the best students. My two books on anatomy are a direct outcome of that experience. Thanks also to sculptor and art historian Oscar C. Fikar for sharing his extensive knowledge and resources on animal anatomy to Michael Rothman, natural history illustrator, for his comments, assistance with computer issues, and loan of reference material and to sculptor Bill Merklein for arranging and assisting with the photographing of the cows,...
These drawings show the head in sections, as if it were a mask. Many students when they reproduce the human figure or a part of it have difficulty in envisaging size from the point of view of perspective and therefore inserting what they want to draw into space. This very often results in drawings Along with the head, the hand constitutes one of the most important and difficult parts of the human body when it comes to drawing.
English and required specialized interpreters, as his village dialect was obscure. I chose the HTP projective test for its previously noted ability to measure independently quantitative details and for its objective scoring system. However, I must state that Buck's study (not unlike Lowenfeld's) focuses on research developed by Western participants and standards. As Machover (1949) has observed, however, common social meanings are inherent in artwork, especially in human figure drawing, and facial characteristics transcend variations in culture or in drawing skill. Thus, the human figure should contain (with exception made only for consequences of figure positioning or an absence accounted for verbally) a head a trunk two legs, arms, and eyes a nose a mouth and two ears (Buck, 1966). Additionally, Figure 3.6 contains two drawings completed within two months of one another. The HTP on the left was completed without an interpreter present and therefore was not accompanied by a...
A human figure can be viewed as a collection of parts. When drawing human figures, it is easy to give balance to the characters by considering the ratio of the size of the head to the length of the body and drawing accordingly. As for human proportions, an infinite variety of human body styles exist depending on the artist and the work.
Opposite A drawing of Venus and Cupid, by Francois Boucher, from the collection of J. N. Brown, Esq., Providence, Rhode Island. Due to considerable practice in life drawing, Boucher, like Rubens, was so familiar with the human figure that he could draw it in all kinds of attitudes without needing a model. It is perhaps fortunate for him that he died before the French Revolution, as other artists of his type, who survived him, fell upon evil times, their work being considered old-fashioned and vulgar. It follows, therefore, that, when the model moves, a very complicated process goes on. Muscles change their shape as they haul the bones into another pose, some areas of fat alter with the shifting of weight and all kinds of things happen which involve you in a whole new world of study. This study can be very fascinating and if you are to benefit from it you must get a good mental picture of the building up of a human body. Seen as a whole the human skeleton might roughly be described as...
Responses in Appendix A (for the structural components) and Appendix B (for the formal aspects of the human figure). Once all three areas (structural, formal, and verbal) have been completed, a clear picture will emerge. Before returning to Figure 3.2, I would like to take a few moments to introduce the formal aspects of the human figure drawing. When you are assessing a projective test, these signs or details take on great significance, for details are believed to represent the subject's awareness of an interest in the elemental aspects of everyday life (Buck, 1948, p. 49). In view of that, when you draw information regarding a client's personality and his or her reaction and behavior in the environment, you must combine any structural assessment with a qualitative interpretation of the signs. A study by Goldstein and Rawn (1957) focused on seven symbolic details and two structural aspects to assess whether aggression could be deduced from drawing style using the DAP. The seven signs...
It is not granted many of us to remember complex forms. So in considering the human figure it is better, at first, to think only of those major forms of which it is composed, and these may be thought of and more easily remembered by a simple formula such as the following
While Dean was in art school, he was fortunate to have several plaster casts to work from. Eventually, he could draw two of them from memory because he had drawn them dozens of times. Both were anatomical casts made by nineteenth-century sculptors One was of the planes of the human head, and the other was a life-sized sculpture depicting the musculature of the human body.
If you have never studied anatomy, you may not know that the musclcs fall naturally into groups or chunks attached in certain ways to the frame. We will not treat their physiological detail here, but consider them merely as parts interlocked or wedged together. Hence the human figure looks very much like our mannikin. The thorax, or chest, is egg-shaped and, as far as we arc concerned, hollow. Over it is draped a cape of muscle extending across the chest and down the back to the base of the spine. Over the cape, in front, lie the shoulder muscles. The buttocks start halfway around in back, from the hips, and slant downward, ending in rather square creases. A V is formed by the slant above the middle crease. There is actually a V-shapcd bone here, wedged between the two pelvic bones that support the spine. The chest is joined to the hips by two masses on either side. In back the calf wedges into the thigh, and in front there is the bulge of the knee.
Junction with a series of carefully designed questions (which can be found in her book Personality Projections in the Drawing of the Human Figure). However, for the purposes of this book I have replaced these questions with a request for the client to invent a story about the completed figures.
The normal human skeleton consists of 206 bones, providing a mobile supporting framework for the body and a protective carapace for the vital organs. (There are also the sesamoid bones, which are formed in tendons and do not directly connect with the others. These are not counted in the total of 206, and are not germane to our discussion here.) The bones are bound to one another by tough, flexible ligaments. At the joints, each articulating bone surface is covered by a thin layer of cartilage, which bears the brunt of the wear and tear and needs constantly to be replaced. The whole joint is enclosed by a capsule of connective tissue, which secretes sinovial fluid to provide lubricant. Central to the human skeletal system is the spine, a flexible column of 33 vertebrae supporting the skull, pectoral girdle (or shoulderframework), rib-cage and pelvis. The arms are connected to the shoulder girdle, the legs to the pelvis.
Again we repeat the basic assumption, verified repeatedly in clinical experience, that the human figure drawn by an individual who is directed to draw a person relates intimately to the impulses, anxieties, conflicts, and compensations characteristic of that individual. In some sense, the figure drawn is the person, and the paper corresponds to the environment. This may be a crude formulation, but serves well as a working hypothesis. The process of drawing the human figure is for the subject, whether he realizes it or not, a problem not only in graphic skill, but one of projecting himself in all of the body meanings and attitudes that have come to be represented in his body image. (p. 35)
In this chapter we shall look at a number of drawing exercises devised to help you towards your goal of good imaginative figure drawing from memory. They are aimed at consolidating the information so far presented and building on the familiarity you have gained with the human figure through your frequent use of your sketchbook. Each exercise contributes in a significant way to the development of the drawing skills you will need, and in the process will help you avoid the commoner pitfalls and weaknesses to which drawings from memory are prone. The two drawings at left both represent a simplified human skeleton. The first shows the main bone shapes, the second a matchstick figure with head, rib-cage and pelvis indicated as eggshapes. As a first step towards drawing figures from memory, doodling this elementary structure in a wide variety of action poses is an excellent way to gain familiarity with the mechanics of figure movement. Once you are confident of the position and curvature of...
This chapter deals with those aspects of human anatomy with which you will need to be familiar. You do not need to have a surgeon's knowledge of each individual muscle and internal organ, but you will have to know everything that affects the shape of the body and its surface form. This includes the skeletal structure, the principal muscle groups which hold it erect and activate it, and the distribution of fat deposits under the skin.
To draw the human figure convincingly, you must be aware of the gesture, or the movement, or position of the body. This gesture gives movement and direction to your drawing, which makes it appear more lifelike. Observing the gesture carefully helps you to understand the placement of the spine, which serves as the center of movement for the whole body. You can also think of this in the opposite way Observe the placement of the spine, and you will understand the gesture.
The human figure, whether standing erect or bent, is composed of a few big, simple masses that in outline are not unlike the astragal, ogee, and apophyge mouldings used in architecture. Looking at the back of the figure, there is the concave sweep of the mass from head to neck, then an outward sweep to the shoulders, a double curve from rib cage to pelvis, ending abruptly where the thigh begins, a slight undulation half way down to the knee, a flattened surface where it enters the back of the knee, another outward sweep over the calf and down to the heel the whole, a series of undulating, varied forms. And the front of the figure curves in and out in much the same manner, a series of concave and convex curves, and planes.
Fripp on this subject, entitled Human Anatomy for Art Students. Notice particularly the swing of the action, such things as the pull occasioned by the arm resting on the farther thigh, and the prominence given to the forms by the straining of the skin at the shoulder. Also the firm lines of the bent back and the crumpled forms of the front of the body. Notice the overlapping of the contours, and where they are accentuated and where more lost, &c., drawing with as much feeling and conviction as you are capable of. You will have for some time to work tentatively, feeling for the true shapes that you do not yet rightly see, but as soon as you feel any confidence, remember it should be your aim to express yourself freely and swiftly. BoundariesTihg l j)eat'IIltt( V e aplpi igg ns with any complexity, such as the human figure, are not continuous lines. One form overlaps another, like the lines of a range of hills. And this overlapping should be sought for and carefully...
Muscle development varies from person to person of either gender, but male musculature is generally heavier than the female. Fat distribution is different, too. Men carry weight at the middle, on the upper back, and lower back. Women tend to carry weight on their buttocks, abdomen, thighs, breasts, and the backs of the upper arms. While today's culture doesn't always consider this attractive, it's a natural part of human anatomy. So relax and open that carton of Mocha Almond Fudge. Typical areas of fat deposits on the human body.
Is only acceptable, even to us, within certain narrow limits of application. Though the choice of the distance from which the artist regards his subject, and consequently the distance between the point from which the picture should be looked at and the canvas (which two lengths are the same when reduced to the same scale), must be left to the artist as forming important parts of his personal aesthetic and compositional intentions, still we may say that in ordinary cases it is not possible visually to take in an object unless we are at from two and a half to three times the length of its greatest dimension from it. That is to say, in order to draw a standing human figure, with the intention of giving a natural air to our work, we should place ourselves at some five or six yards distance from it. Having by exercise of judgement fixed the point d (Fig. 30) we draw the line zd. If we now draw lines parallel to yz through all the points of intersection between zd and our perspective...
Any sky painting will be predominantly horizontal and must therefore contain some minor vertical elements otherwise you may end up with something that looks like a section of a sandwich Here are some well-tried and trusted linking elements towers or steeples windmills trees or mountains cranes telegraph poles houses the human figure cliffs docks piers and jetties sails - white against dark clouds are particularly useful. However, always remember to position these away from the centre of the painting. The magic formula for the ideal spot is a different distance from
Most human figure models use a simplified articulated skeleton consisting of relatively few jointed segments. Magnenat-Thalmann and Thalmann 11 challenged researchers to develop more accurate articulated models for the skeletal support of human figures. They observe that complex motion control algorithms which have been developed for primitive articulated models better suit robotlike characters than they do human figures. To address this issue, researchers have revisited the skeletal layer of human figure models to solve some specific problems. In Jack 1 , the shoulder is modeled accurately as a clavicle and shoulder pair. The spatial relationship between the clavicle and shoulder is adjusted based on the position and orientation of the upper arm. In another treatment of the shoulder-arm complex, the Thalmanns 11 use a moving joint based on lengthening the clavicle which produces good results. Monheit and Badler 14 developed a kinematic model of the human spine that improves on the...
Texts other than in human figure modeling, such as in 3D character animation and the animation of other animals with endoskeletons. We adopted an approach to modeling which parallels the one taken in the discipline of artistic anatomy. By analyzing the relationship between exterior form and the structures responsible for creating it, surface form and shape change may be understood best. We identified three general anatomical structures responsible for creating surface form and described one of these, the musculature, in some detail. Application of knowledge of the human anatomy to the development of human figure models is necessary if we hope to achieve a high degree of realism. Future research could analyze the structure and function of muscles further to enable a more automated approach to their creation than the one used here. If the origin, insertion, volume, and general shape of a muscle could be determined heuristically, perhaps based on the type of joint(s) being acted upon, or...
Artists study anatomy to understand the relationship between exterior form and the structures responsible for creating it. In this paper we follow a similar approach in developing anatomy-based models of muscles. We consider the influence of the musculature on surface form and develop muscle models which react automatically to changes in the posture of an underlying articulated skeleton. The models are implemented in a procedural language that provides convenient facilities for defining and manipulating articulated models. To illustrate their operation, the models are applied to the torso and arm of a human figure. However, they are sufficiently general to be applied in other contexts where articulated skeletons provide the basis of modeling. Additional Keywords Articulated Models, Procedural Modeling, Deformations, Muscles, Tendons, Bones, Human Figure Animation
With the author's customary blend of expertise and encouragement, providing examples and exercises at every stage, The Fundamentals of Drawing in Colour takes aspiring artists step-by-step, teaching them to observe, compose and record a variety of subjects. After a straightforward introduction to colour theory, still-life studies are presented as the bedrock of drawing practice and, from this basis, the book goes on to deal in detail with landscape, animals and finally, the human figure and portraiture.
When the artist studies human anatomy, he is not usually pursuing the same goals as the medical doctor or the scientist. He is searching for visual form which can be translated aesthetically and augmented imaginatively. However, knowledge o anatomy is essential for an understanding of various attitudes, postures, and movements. It allows the artist to truly understand the surface contours of the body because he knows the forms and structures underneath. It also teaches him why the surface forms appear as they do. Hopefully you will not be so caught in the study of the parts that you forget the rhythmic and unified whole. As you go through this chapter, you'll see the efficiency, order, and symmetry of the forms of the hand and the integrated way in which all work together to give the hand its wide variety of movement and response.
Strictly speaking, the term form refers to the visual aspect and shape of an image, but within the realm of drawing it can also incorporate a sculptural quality during the Renaissance and Baroque periods, the emphasis in art was on creating as solid and as three-dimensional an image as possible. Michelangelo's work has a powerful feeling of shape and structure that goes well beyond a superficial rendering of the human body. This idea of sculpted form is still relevant to drawing today, although' it is often interpreted differently. The quality of line may be more expressive and economical and may suggest movement more dramatically. One of the greatest artists of the Renaissance, Michelangelo concentrated on the human figure almost exclusively and his anatomical knowledge was impressive. This perfectly proportioned image of Christ is caught by a diffused light thai highlights the complexity of muscles and bone structure forming his body. The artist has modelled these features into a...
When you portray a human body it is necessary to remember that you are depicting something that is alive, and in the specific case of fashion design, it is fundamental to observe closely the typical movements which characterize the poses adopted by the models. They are movements which are supple, trim and nimble. The fashion model walks in a way that is absolutely unique, turns and swings her hips in a wonderful way, stops and poses in ways which defy gravity.
This standard of comparison is used because, of all the things an artist draws, the nude human figure is the most difficult, and especially the female nude figure. Obviously, everything you draw is difficult if drawn sincerely, but in the case of the human figure, should you make even the slightest mistake it will be apparent at once. Everybody has a very clear idea of what a human figure should look like and therefore any deviation from this will be noticed at once the legs are made too short, they will say, or that arm is too thin and couldn't bend like that. When you are drawing a tree you may draw three more branches on the tree than were really there but nobody will quarrel with your drawing on that account if the tree is reasonably tree-like. absurd, but if your career is going to include much drawing or painting the human figure you will certainly need to master figure drawing. Even if it isn't should, for instance, design or landscape be your choice even then it will be of...
Most art students and too many professional artists will do anything to avoid drawing the human figure in deep space. Walk through the life drawing classes of any art school and you'll discover that nearly every student is terrified of action poses with torsos tilting toward him or away from him, with arms and legs striding forward or plunging back into the distance twisting and bending poses in which the forms of the figure overlap and seem to conceal one another and worst of all, reclining poses, with the figure seen in perspective Burne Hogarth's achievement in Dynamic Figure Drawing is the creation of a rational system which eliminates the guesswork that plagues every student of the figure. This system isn't a shortcut, a collection of tricks to memorize in order to produce stock solutions to drawing problems for nothing can make figure drawing that easy. The human figure remains the most demanding of all subjects for the artist. What Dynamic Figure Drawing reveals is the inherent...
SINCE the beginning of time men have been interested in drawing but the ability to make drawings of the human figure came long after bison, mammoths, antelopes, etc. I don't know why this was so, but if you look at early prehistoric cave paintings the humans are usually just little matchstick-like objects over which the wild horses and bison tower like skyscrapers. Not until long after primitive draughtsmen mastered the drawing of animals did their studies of humans begin. We're now approaching comparatively civilized times, but still no figure drawing as far as we know. In Europe the darkness of the Middle Ages and the iron rule of the Church spread a blight over any hope of drawing the human figure without its clothing. Here and there an Adam and Eve timidly depicted, or scenes in Hell by Bosch or Bruegel showed some attempts in this direction. During this period Art was flourishing in China, India and Persia, but again, in a conventionalized form charming, observant, often drawn...
Great artists have, in the past, illustrated the phases of anatomy that related to one or another portion of the human body. In the new complete bridgman it is clear that all of the constructive anatomy of the human figure is gathered into one volume. Bridgman invented a terminology which graphically describes the twisting and turning of the human body. The term Wedging likewise is his own it describes how one group of muscles integrates with another. By simplifying forms and giving them increased definition, he makes his particular method an easy one to remember. In a sense these drawings of the human George Bridgman's life was devoted to making clear these complex movements of human anatomy so that artist, art student and teacher may find an inexhaustible mine of information that touches every phase of their study. PROPORTIONS OF THE HUMAN FIGURE 17
The drawing of sculptures and plaster casts is a tried-and-true exercise that has been practiced by artists for centuries. It is the perfect bridge between drawing a still life and a portrait or human figure. The tradition of training artists through drawing great sculpture continued throughout the nineteenth century. After a relatively short decline in the twentieth century, it is now experiencing a revival in art academia. As a form of training, not only does it bring an art student closer to the aesthetic interests of the sculptor who created the work of art, but it is also an excellent way for a student to become acquainted with drawing the human form. In the art schools of the past, a student would often spend a minimum of 2 years drawing antique plaster casts before moving on to drawing the human figure from live models. The artist can gain insight into the human figure by observing proportion and anatomy, and the rendering of light on the form. To achieve the desired result, as...
Few artists of today have shown themselves more skilled in the representation of elegant womanhood than Francis Marshall, whose drawings of the human figure have established fame in the world of fashion. In this book all clothes are cast aside and the author's knowledge and experience of drawing the nude female form is shared with students and amateurs to whom he explains and demonstrates the procedures he advocates. The book is fully illustrated with litho reproductions of many of his own drawings all of which have been exclusively prepared for this context as well as by selected works from the hands of other masters of the human figure, both of the past and the present.
The muscles of the human body not only bend the body by muscular force, but also serve as brakes, slowing the reactions. For instance, the biceps and the brachialis anticus muscles are placed in the front of the upper arm and, by their contraction, they bend the elbow. If power ceased altogether, the forearm would drop down. But the opposing muscle slows the otherwise uncontrolled movement after the manner of a brake. This mechanism of slow motion pervades all the limbs and every movement of the body.
In a human figure there are the masses of head, chest and pelvis. Each of these has a certain height, breadth and thickness. Considered as blocks, these masses balance, tilt and twist, held together in their different movements by the spinal column. As they twist and turn, the spaces between them become long, short or spiral.
The human figure is always full of force no matter how still it may seem. We are built to move and therefore even when a model is standing straight, there are forces to comprehend and address. We are always under the influence of gravity, which is an all-encompassing force to recognize. When drawing, we need to think about the beauty of why and how the model works, not worry what angle to hold a pencil at in order to shade appropriately.
The limbs of the human body, although always paired, have asymmetry within themselves. Look at the drawing of the leg. Look at how its musculature creates asymmetrical forms and therefore a functional and appealing shape. The same goes for the drawings of the arm. There are no moments of mirroring or equal forces being found on both sides of a shape. The shape of the body's anatomy always gives us a feeling of functionality. A simple way of seeing this is to notice the peaks of force on the sides of a shape and making sure that they are not directly across from one another.
To begin with, you may be able to get down no more than the angle of the head and the set of a shoulder before your subject moves. This is fine everything you do in this way contributes to your growing fund of knowledge about the human figure. These details may not seem very valuable, but they most certainly are. If you are able to draw the slovenly young man slouching against the bus stop or the tired old woman burdened with shopping your work will have the ring of authenticity, and the essence of character is in the subtlety of such details. You will be surprised how readily this is noticed and how much it is appreciated by anyone who sees your work - even if they don't know why they prefer it.
The human figure is a solid form and your drawing of human form must convey the same solids,created by height,width,depth and thickness. This same bulk and weight must be expressed in animals,trees and even in the simplest of objects,because everything we see and choose to draw,exists in a three dimensional world. The best way to study anatomy is to draw by copying illustrations from an anatomy book. This helps you to understand the inner workings of the human body and increases your vocabulary with Latin Texts to bone and muscle.
Understanding human anatomy will help you achieve greater expressive ability in figure drawing. By understanding the many different aspects of the human form, you can better grasp how the figure works as a whole. For example, if you feel along the bone on the lower part of your jaw, you will notice that there is a small indentation about halfway between the chin and the back of the jaw. This indentation is to allow a blood vessel to pass under the jaw. The indentation helps to protect the vessel. The significance of this little indentation is that it affects the curvature of the jaw. The jawbone is actually concave here, rather than convex. A slender person who has little fat around the jaw will show this distinct feature of the jaw more clearly than a heavy person will. Knowing this little aspect of the figure can help the artist who wishes to express a thin person. In Chapter 2 you created a simplified skeletal structure to use as a base for drawing the figure. We called it drawing...
All this is especially true when your subject is the human figure. Not only will you need to be able to call upon a fund of first-hand information about the body's shape and structure, you must also gain a thorough knowledge of how people stand and sit and move if you are going to be able to draw them convincingly. For this reason you should make constant use of a sketchbook.
When you have had some experience in drawing the human figure from life and have assimilated the basic information about the body's structure and operation, the prospect of creating imaginative figure drawings without a model becomes far less daunting. A great amount of information about human anatomy and movement is learned in the process of drawing the posed studio model and from sketching people as they go about their daily lives, but this is not the sole purpose of such exercises. Knowledge gained in this way is absorbed at an intuitive level, and as such contributes to the stock of experience available to feed your imagination and give scope to the expressive possibilities of your work. The human form is so subtle, its range of movement so wide and its expressiveness so profound that no artist can claim to have explored all its vast potential. Drawing from life keeps your mind open and liberates your imagination. If your work is to remain honest and alive and free from slick...
In this copy of a fascinating sketch by the nineteenth-century artist Luca Cambiaso, you can see how the artist literally built the figures of this composition out of a variety of rectangular blocks by considering the large planes of the figures. With a great knowledge of the mechanics of the human figure, Cambiaso created a very believable group of figures in motion and gave them a feeling of solidity and light through the use of these simplified forms. This could have been a preliminary study for a large-scale figure painting, or simply an exercise in the gesture and movement of the human figure.
The Human Figure One of the greatest challenges to confront an artist is drawing the human figure. Our bodies are infinitely complex yet intimately familiar, giving rise to a subject that is difficult to depict accurately yet judged incessantly The human figure is almost overwhelmingly complex for the artist to draw The human figure is an organic structure that defies geometric simplification. It is composed of bones, muscles, and organs, all of which are covered by a flexible layer of skin. The body has many moving parts that make it almost impossible to define as a shape. Within its skeleton are more than 200 individual bones. Attached to the skeleton and throughout the body are more than 650 muscles. There is a rich history of art centered on the human figure. The human form transcends the history of art from the earliest cave paintings to the present time. Great masters such as Rembrandt, da Vinci, Michelangelo, Velasquez, Rubens, David, Picasso, and more have all focused on the...
And again, in paragraph 176 of his treatise, Leonardo writes The knowledge of the outline is of most consequence, and yet may be acquired to great certainty by dint of study as the outlines of the human figure, particularly those which do not bend, are invariably the same. But the knowledge of the situation, quality and quantity of shadows, being infinite, requires the most The outlines of the human figure are invariably the same What dods3this mean From the visual point of view we know that the space occupied by figures in the field of our vision is by no means invariably the same, but of great variety. So it cannot be the visual appearance he is speaking about. It can only refer to the mental idea of the shape of the members of the human figure. The remark particularly those that do not bend shows this also, for when the body is bent up even the mental idea of its form must be altered. There is no hint yet of vision being exploited for itself, but only in so far as it yielded...
So far I have dealt with the human figure drawn virtually in isolation, with just occasionally a little background to provide setting and atmosphere. But, as we saw on page 92, good pictures don't just happen through haphazardly shoving together everything you want to put in. Foreground, background and incidental objects, as well as the main centre of interest, all have a place within the picture area, and must therefore be intelligently arranged to create a unified whole. So, in setting out to create complete pictures involving the human figure, we have to consider some important practical aspects of picture composition.
Yet even here we are not consequent with ourselves. In the design of a carpet we at once admit the validity of rhythmic arabesques which are c like * nothing at all. After all, they are stylizations of I know not what creeper or other natural forms. Yet if the same degree of stylization be carried out on, say, the human figure, we announce ourselves offended. It would really be very difficult to run fairly to
Live figure, but it is a great tool for an artist to use in planning, developing, and creating figurative art. It is a tool that can expand the artist's vision and increase the artist's knowledge of the figure. Used properly, Figure Artist can become a valuable ally in the struggle to understand one of the most complex and difficult subjects in art, the human figure.
The human figure is an expressive form. Often you can tell what people are thinking by how they stand or hold themselves. When doing figure drawings, you will be confronted with the choice of how to pose your figures. This decision can be critical to the success of the drawing. Look at the difference between the stances shown in Figure 5.1. Can you describe the emotion of each figure The human body has an expressiveness that communicates through an unspoken language often referred to as body language. As an artist, you must learn this language and become as expressive with it as a writer is with words.
The joints of the body have natural limits to movement. The arm, for example, only bends at the elbow in one direction. Contortionists may defy the natural limitations of the human body, but drawing a limb that is pushed way beyond its natural limits will often result in a drawing that looks odd or disturbing rather than dynamic. Some action. These art forms have consistently pushed the human figure into more and more extreme movement to add drama and suspense to art. Take a look at the three figure poses shown in Figure 8.4.
Although this is not a book about portraiture, it is still a book about drawing the figure, and no figure-drawing book is complete without taking a close look at drawing the head. There is probably no other part of human anatomy that is viewed more than our heads, and there is probably no part of the head that is more sought out by others than the eyes. The head is the central element of countless works of art. Whole industries, such as beauty salons and cosmetics companies, are devoted to enhancing the beauty of the head. Proportion in figure drawing is a term used to describe accurately defining relative distances between physical features of the human body. This means that when drawing people, all aspects of the body are related to each other so that no part is drawn too small or too large.
In studying the human figure, each part will be dealt with separately, then the figure as a whole will be considered. The dressing-up process will then be considered, which will be extremely interesting, as the principles learned in the first ten lessons will apply. In these lessons on anatomy, no attempt is made to teach the muscles, bones, and planes of the body, as used by artists who paint the nude figure from life but a complete understanding of these lessons will enable the student to render in pen and ink the human figure as needed in the fashion field.
Essentials of Human Physiology
This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.