Most human figure models use a simplified articulated skeleton consisting of relatively few jointed segments. Magnenat-Thalmann and Thalmann  challenged researchers to develop more accurate articulated models for the skeletal support of human figures. They observe that complex motion control algorithms which have been developed for primitive articulated models better suit robotlike characters than they do human figures. To address this issue, researchers have revisited the skeletal layer of human figure models to solve some specific problems. In Jack , the shoulder is modeled accurately as a clavicle and shoulder pair. The spatial relationship between the clavicle and shoulder is adjusted based on the position and orientation of the upper arm. In another treatment of the shoulder-arm complex, the Thalmanns  use a moving joint based on lengthening the clavicle which produces good results. Monheit and Badler  developed a kinematic model of the human spine that improves on the realism with which the torso can be bent or twisted. Scheepers etal.  developed a skeleton model which supports anatomically accurate pronation and supination of the two forearm bones. Gourret etal.  use realistic bones in their hand skeleton to assist in producing appropriate deformations of the fingers in a grasping task.
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